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💀👻🎃 Samhain & the Blue Full Moon - October 31 🌒🌕🌘

2020.10.27 14:24 Einmariya 💀👻🎃 Samhain & the Blue Full Moon - October 31 🌒🌕🌘

Welcome to the latest sabbat informational post! Throughout the year, we will be posting up these threads to share general information about the next upcoming sabbat so WvP's witches, new and old, can prepare for the holiday. These posts will contain basic information about the holiday and open up for the floor for further questions or discussion.

Special Note About Halloween & Samhain:

For the sake of this post, I'm going to assume that WvP's witches are familiar with the basic principles of the modern Halloween and that it is derived from a conglomeration of older, pagan rituals from around Samhain. After all, Halloween is a pretty basic cultural concept at this point (pop or otherwise), having spread itself globally via media and the internet to places where it was barely heard of even a decade ago.
As such, I'm not going to be talking about Halloween and its connections with Samhain at all in this post. Samhain itself is, after all, a very important witch's holiday in its own right and deserves its proper consideration by itself aside for its current popular holiday connections.
If there's interest, I could put together another post (later, after Samhain) that goes a bit more in depth about particular aspects of Samhain and how they're related to modern Halloween celebrations. But this post as it is will certainly be long enough on its own, I assure you!

💀👻🎃 Samhain & the Blue Full Moon - October 31 🌒🌕🌘

What and When is Samhain?

Samhain (pronounced SAH-win or SOW-in) is one of the eight sabbats of the modern pagan Wheel of the Year. It is one of the "greater sabbats", falling approximately halfway between an equinox and a solstice. The others are Imbolc (mid-Winter), Beltane (mid-Spring), and Lughnasadh (mid-Summer). Samhain also has extra importance due to being the beginning of the Celtic New Year.
In the northern hemisphere, Samhain falls on November 1st, but it is an almost universal practice to celebrate it beginning at sunset of October 31st. According to the original Celtic calendar, days begin at sunset, and because Samhain is such an important holiday, this sunset starting time stuck around longer than it has for other holidays.
For our Southern Hemisphere witches, the next holiday is Beltane, the beginning of the Light half of the year, and its celebrations traditionally fall on November 1st. For more information, check out our earlier Beltane post!

What's all this now about a Blue Moon?

The next Full Moon also falls on October 31st this year, and since it is the second Full Moon within the calendar month of October, it counts as a Blue Moon! It's also the Hunter's Moon and a "micromoon" (meaning that the moon is at its further point from Earth, the opposite of a "supermoon").
Due to the conjunction of a Blue Full Moon and Samhain/Beltane falling on the same date (and of course given the current state of, well, everything), many witches around the world have been using this as an opportunity to add more potency to their spells and rituals, or are otherwise doing more than they might otherwise.

Samhain: History, Connections, and Modern Practice

In historic Gaelic tradition, the year was split into two halves, the dark half and the light half. The dark half of the year began on Samhain, and following the tradition of dates starting with darkness, Samhain also marks the beginning of the New Year as well. It was celebrated throughout Ireland, Scotland, and the Isle of Man, and similar celebrations can also be seen in Wales and parts of England. Based on historical records, we can tell that the original festival likely lasted for more than a single day, with estimates going as high as a full seven days (three days before and after Samhain, plus the day itself).
Samhain is a liminal time, when the veil to the Otherworld is thin, and such it is a perfect time to venerate ancestors and the dead. The fair folk are also more active at this time, as are other spirits and entities. Much was done to both honour the dead and the spirits and other entities, and also to protect one's self from them. Some of these practices included leaving out a dumb supper for the dead, mumming and disguising to hide from spirits (or collect food on their behalf), sacrificing livestock that would not have survived the winter, or otherwise leaving food or other offerings and sacrifices.
Another benefit of the thinning veil is that Samhain is the perfect time for divination of all sorts. Traditionally, this was primarily done in and around the Samhain bonfire. One Scottish ritual involved placing stones in ash around the fire and seeing if any were misplaced by morning. Apples and hazelnuts were also often used in divination rituals, with apples in particular having a strong connection to the dead and being at the height of ripeness.
As you might expect from such an important holiday, Samhain also crops up frequently in Celtic myths and legends. In some cases, such as with the Nemedians in the Lebor Gabála Érenn, Samhain was a time of great sacrifice and may have been used symbolically to represent the harshness of the winter months. Later on, Samhain marks the start of the Second Battle of Mag Tuired when the Tuatha Dé Danann finally defeat the Fomorians, and finally, Finn McCool defeats Áillen on Samhain, ending his 23-year cyclic fiery destruction of Tara.
Samhain is connected to a few different locations in Ireland, such as Oweynagat ("cave of cats") in Rathcroghan, or Tlachtga ("hill of ward") in the Boyne Valley. The Hill of Tara has an especially notable connection at the Mound of Hostages, as the entrance passage is aligned with the sunrise during astrological time period around Samhain.
Many deities also have connections to the holiday, or various aspects of it. In Celtic Mythology, we have The Morrígan and The Dagda (via their encounter before the Second Battle of Mag Tuired), and Tlachtga (a deity or druidess who gave her name to the hill mentioned above). In Scotland, the Cailleach begins her rule. In Wiccan tradition, Samhain marks the death of the Horned God (don't worry, he'll be reborn during Yule) and the Goddess is strongest in her Crone phase. Other deities from traditions around the world are also connected to this time, such as Persephone whose primary myth also involves a split between the dark and light halves of the year, or any other deity associated with Death or Darkness.
As Samhain traditions have managed to survive into the current times so well, modern witches have a wealth of information to pull from for Samhain rituals and celebrations. Although the livestock- and harvest-related aspects of the holiday are less important to us, we can all appreciate and make use of the thinning of the veil, and taking time out of our lives to honour our ancestors, other dead, and all the fairies and spirits and other denizens of the Otherworld that are at their strongest during this time of year.
Honouring our ancestors and other dead spirits is one the most important aspects of Samhain and something almost every witch will try to take time to do in some shape or form during this time. One of the simplest and most common ways to do this is to make an extra meal during Samhain and leave it at an empty space at your dining table, to offer the food for any ancestors who wish to visit during this time. Many witches may also visit graveyards, both of known ancestors or to otherwise honour the forgotten dead who may not have anyone else to visit.
Additionally, just like our ancestors did, now is the perfect time for witches of all ages, knowledge, and skill to brush up on their divination. It's a perfect time to start learning a new divination technique or hone an existing one. Pick up a deck of tarot cards or a pendulum. If you have no talent or inclination towards divination on your own, you may wish to hire a small business witch to do a reading for you.
Aside from traditional Celtic celebrations, many other cultures around the world have their own ways to honour the dead and the coming winter. One of the most well-known examples of this is the Mexican Día de Muertos (Day of the Dead), which was itself based on earlier Aztec festivals honouring Mictēcacihuātl, "Lady of the Dead". Check out the Festival of the Dead page on Wikipedia for a more comprehensive listing of other autumnal, death- and ancestry-related festivals. Especially when honouring ancestors, you may wish to include aspects of some customs they might have known during their lives.
One other pagan aspect of this time of year that I'd like to touch on quick is the Wild Hunt. Chasing the pre-Christian history of the Wild Hunt is far beyond the scope of this post, but it has roots through much of western Europe and is connected to many of the same deities and themes that are so prevalent with Samhain as well, as autumn gets deeper, the dark gets darker, and the spirits become more restless and powerful. Some practitioners of different types of European paganism like to encorprate aspects of the Wild Hunt into their devotions and rituals for this time of year.
Check out our section below for some more specific ideas and examples of ways to celebrate Samhain with yourself, or maybe even a few (properly distanced) family or friends.
As a part of the Wheel of the Year, Samhain follows Mabon, and the beginning of the Dark Half of the year is starting. By now, everything should be harvested and the cattle should be brought to their winter pastures. It is a time to reflect on and honour the dead, and prepare ourselves mentally, physically, and spiritually for the long, cold, dark winter coming up ahead.
If you look at the sabbats as a reflection of the self, Samhain is the beginning and the end. It is a time to reflect on the accomplishments of the past year, and to begin looking ahead to what is coming. Mother nature will come alive again in spring, and in the meantime, we need to get right with ourselves, each other, and the world, to set us up for the best chance of success when we begin to sprout again in a few months. Think about what long-term goals and intentions you'd like to work on and take the initial steps towards planning them out.
Symbols: Skulls/Skeletons, Ghosts, Jack-o-Lanterns, Brooms, Cauldrons, Acorns/Nuts Colours: Black, White, Purple, Orange, Red Plants/Herbs: Oak, Rowan, Hazel, Rosemary, Mint, Calendula, Sage, Wormwood Foods: Apples, Pumpkins/Gourds, Nuts, Turnips, Breads, Soul Cakes

Simple rituals and ways to celebrate Samhain include:

  • Honour your ancestors and any other dead you personally wish to honour. This may include visiting graves, hosting a dumb supper, or perhaps following some specific cultural traditions as part of a Festival of the Dead or other Ancestor Veneration. This is a personal thing, so do what works best for you.
  • Honour the Forgotten Dead, those who have no one else to remember them. You may wish to follow a ritual, by yourself or with others, or perhaps something more low-key would suit you, like visiting an old graveyard and speaking to any spirits who may be near.
  • Build a ritual bonfire, a great way to celebrate and stay warm while social-distantly visiting with family and friends. One popular Samhain bonfire ritual is to write something you wish to discard on a bay leaf or piece of paper and symbolically burn it in the fire while thinking of a positive thing with which you'd like to replace it.
  • Perform a divination technique to make the most of the thinning veil. Seances, ouija boards, and other "direct" spiritual communication is popular during this time, or you may prefer something more concrete such as tarot or casting runes. If you've been drawn to divination but not started, now is a great time to give it a whirl! Or you might like to support a small business witch to do a reading for you.
  • Setup, clean, and/or refresh your altar for Samhain. Check here or over at tumblr if you'd like ideas or inspiration.
  • If you want something a bit more old school than the traditional jack-o-lantern, try making your very own turnip head!
  • Make an ancestral altar or shrine with physical mementos of loved ones. This doubles as a great space to make any further ancestral offerings during the season. Remember, you don't only have to only your blood kin, but any others who have passed on can be honoured.
  • If you're not sure what to offer the dead, bake a batch of Soul Cakes.
  • Cook some other Samhain-inspired goodies to unleash your inner Kitchen Witch; here are some suggestions. Freshest is bestest!
  • Perform a Samhain seasonal rite/ritual. Here is a good example of a solitary Samhain ritual, for practicing witches without a coven. This is an example of a simple group ritual that can be customized to fit your needs. This post also contains some nice seasonal spells, rituals, crafts, and rites.
  • Perform an ancestor-related ritual or ceremony. This page contains a number of simple examples to build off of.
  • If you're celebrating Samhain with children, find some ways ways to include them in the holiday, such as by making some child-friendly Samhain crafts.
  • You can also try your hand at another traditional Irish craft, the Parshell Cross, which is very similar to a rowan cross.
  • Celebrate by eating and cooking with seasonal produce.

Tips for New and/or Broom Closet Witches

Samhain can be an intimidating holiday for a new witch, especially one with a religious family and/or one still in the broom closet in any respect. On one hand, the massive pop culture explosion of Halloween has brought death and spookiness into the mainstream for October, and it's easy to blend in. On the other hand, that same popularity can make it difficult to separate out and enjoy the more spiritual aspects of the holiday. Further, there are a great many misconception in the general public about witches and Samhain that can make things particularly uncomfortable.
That said, one of the most important things about Samhain is also the simplest and easiest to do in your own personal way, whatever that is: honouring the dead. Visit a cemetery, look at pictures, leave out an offering of food, think, remember. There are so many ways to honour and connect with those who have gone before, and everyone can do this in their own way. It's also a good way to help come to terms with our own mortality.
In more fun news, this is the perfect time for witches of all types to have fun buying "seasonal" products for year round use. Halloween is perfect for finding lots of witchy, gothy, spooky stuff for altars or deity veneration, jewellery, or even just going full a e s t h e t i c and decorating your space however you like.
Witchy seasonal baking is also in full swing this time of year, and everything pumpkin is super in season, so dig right in! Apples, nuts, dense breads, corn, these are all great foodstuffs that are seasonably appropriate and can be used in a variety of dishes, pastries, drinks, or anything you'd like. Closeted witches may find themselves extra clumsy this time of year, "dropping" food on the floor can't be eaten any longer and must be disposed of (a decent way to disguise offerings, if done in moderation).
Much of the importance of the Wheel of the Year is to really incorporate yourself with nature and the earth's yearly cycles. For most of the temperate, northern part of the world, autumn is definitely in full swing, and some places are already seeing snow flurries. Enjoy the changing colours of the leaves and the brisk freshness of the air during a forest walk, if you can. Now is a great time to spot mushrooms, gather acorns and rowan berries, and to enjoy the stillness of mother nature going to sleep. How are the animals and plants in your neighbourhood preparing for the coming winter? What do you still need to prepare yourself for the coming cold and dark?
Feel free to ask any questions you might have below or otherwise use this post for discussion about Samhain (northern witches), the upcoming Blue Full Moon, or Beltane (southern witches)!
submitted by Einmariya to WitchesVsPatriarchy [link] [comments]

2020.10.23 16:35 lolbot-10000 Infrequent subreddit update

Good afternoon everyone,
It has apparently been around six months since I last penned an update (where has the time gone...), so I figure that now is as good a time as any to provide the latest installment of 'what is new in the world of policeuk'. You might've already noticed some of these changes, whereas others might've casually slipped by...

New post flair options

We have a new addition to the 'post flair' family that you can all use from today: 'Positive news'. We're going to be testing this out as a way to highlight some of the good police work that otherwise goes unseen, so please do feel free to liberally submit anything that you'd consider to be an example of good work, happy news or general policing success. I'll look at the possibility of adding an optional 'hide all positive news' filter as a next step, for those who hate nice things /s.

News articles

On the subject of post flairs, we have made some minor amendments to news article automoderation. The old link to the service has been removed (at some point it stopped working, and given that no-one has complained I have assumed that no-one actually used it - do let me know if you did and/or know of any alternatives though) and we have replaced it with an independent source checking site, which seems to be quite fitting in the current age of 'fake news'. As part of this change, we have (finally) added The Guardian to our list of unreliable sources, given that they are currently independently-rated as 'MIXED' factual reporting overall and that just further supports the significant concerns that much of our professional readership has had around the quality of their police-related reporting for some time now. Furthermore, Guardian opinion articles will now be specifically flaired as such, as they truly are in a category of their own.
For the sake of clarity, unreliable sources will continue to be allowed as submissions here and they sometimes generate the most interesting discussion; we just want to encourage everyone to be a properly-informed, critical readership and believe this is the best way to facilitate that.

England and Wales

More of a question for you all than an update for this one. We're very conscious that PoliceUK tends to be quite England-and-Wales specific - I'm as guilty as anyone of causing this, as a lot of the wiki was written by me and I simply don't know enough about elsewhere to write much of use. What can we do to make it clear(er) that other countries and specialist forces also exist? We do have some excellent contributors who helpfully remind people on an individual-post basis, but it'd be great if we could find a more structured way to recognise the (sometimes incredibly important) differences. Answers on a postcard please, or at least in the comments below!

Responding in good faith

We've added a new comment deletion reason: 'Unhelpful answer'.
This will be used where someone has asked a legitimate question and the provided answers have either been completely sarcastic/jokey/obviously unhelpful or simply accusing someone of 'trolling'/"that didn't happen" without any explanation of how it couldn't happen. As-per a previous communique on the subject, the default assumption should be that all questions are asked in good faith, because even if it isn't your genuine answers could still help other people. If you think that someone is obviously trolling, please just report their submission and move on - no-one is winning any prizes for being the one to call the troll out publicly.
This is a tricky one, and we probably won't get the balance right all of the time, so again we're asking for your help here. On one hand, we obviously don't want to be the fun police - some joke responses are clearly and genuinely original and funny. But on the other hand, if someone new comes on to ask a genuine question but gets hammered with sarcastic joke answers and nothing that actually helps them out, they simply aren't going to have a good perception of our community. Please just be mindful of this and at least accompany your dry sarcastic wit with some genuine assistance if you can!


We unfortunately have a continuing problem with people downvoting comments that appear to be made in good faith - and it's often unclear who is doing this, given that we are sadly often a target for brigades and trolls. Please consider upvoting any contributions that you think have been made in good faith to offset this issue, even if you don't agree with what they're saying! We want this to be a place where people can have opposing views without fear of being downvoted in to silence for respectfully sharing them.

Our wiki

I have slowly been updating the wiki in my free time, with a few new additions in recent months. Of particular note is our guides section, which has a range of more in-depth information around some topics, including some kindly written by others here!
If you'd like to help out with the wiki, please let me know. I'd be very happy to add new guides (crediting the author(s), of course) that are provided by the community.
It is also getting to the point where we're struggling to keep it up-to-date as much as we'd like. If you spot any errors or updates that are needed, please do let us know.

Discord chat

If you haven't joined already, come and play Among Us, Phasmophobia, Jackbox or just look at cat pictures with us on our Discord live chat service. The invite to join can be found here - everyone is welcome, but verified members have additional access to an additional section in which to share their finest memes professional discussion and knowledge we do actually have channels for both.


Just a quick reminder and confirmation for anyone who wants to have a 'verified' user flair on here - the process is completely anonymous and can be found here. It remains completely optional, but the use of correct user flair (even if 'unverified') helps both the community as a whole and the mod team when we look at the statistics for our user base to decide who we should be focusing on most.
Once again, thank you all for your contributions and making this place a great community. Cheers, and speak to you all again in another six months or so!
-Lolbot, on behalf of the policeuk moderation team
submitted by lolbot-10000 to policeuk [link] [comments]

2020.10.22 18:17 Paranoiadestroyer UK mental health helplines and resources

Here I will include a master post of UK mental health helplines/resources, feel free to message me directly if there is anything you would like me to add to this post. If you would like quick support on this site for DWP related issues please consider checking out DWPhelp and if you would be interested in giving/getting general mental health support and mental health news etc please consider checking out MentalHealthUK
Mental health helplines:
Shout is the UK’s first 24/7 text service, free on all major mobile networks, for anyone in crisis anytime, anywhere. We can help with urgent issues such as: suicidal thoughts, abuse or assault, self-harm, bullying and relationship challenges
Text Shout to 85258
Mental Health Matters
Helpline for people with mental health problems, their carers, families and friends. The Team can offer emotional guidance and information and help people who may be feeling low, anxious or stressed or in extreme emotional distress and feel that there is nowhere else to turn. Support is also provided to people caring for another person and finding it difficult to cope. The service is confidential unless it is considered there is a risk to yourself or others. Webchat available 24/7
Phone: click here to find the different numbers for the geographical areas covered Email: [email protected]
We offer confidential emotional support to children, young adults and adults by telephone, email and post. We work with callers to develop healthy, positive coping strategies, an inner feeling of strength and increased self esteem to encourage healing, recovery and moving forward with life.
Phone: 01708 765200 (hours variable - ring for details)
Email: [email protected]
The Silver Line
The Silver Line operates the only confidential, free helpline for older people across the UK that's open 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 365 days of the year. We also offer telephone friendship where we match volunteers with older people based on their interests, facilitated group calls, and help to connect people with local services in their area.
Phone: 0800 4 70 80 90 Email: [email protected]
Breathing Space
A confidential phoneline for anyone in Scotland over the age of 16, feeling low, anxious or depressed.
Phone: 0800 838587 (weekdays mon-thurs 6pm until 2am. Weekend Friday 6pm-Monday 6am)
C.A.L.L. Mental health helpline
Offers emotional support and information/literature on Mental Health and related matters to the people of Wales. Anyone concerned about their own mental health or that of a relative or friend can access the service. C.A.L.L. Helpline offers a confidential listening and support service.
Phone: 0800 132 737 or text help to 81066
Lifeline Helpline
Lifeline is the Northern Ireland crisis response helpline service for people who are experiencing distress or despair. No matter what your age or where you live in Northern Ireland, if you are or someone you know is in distress or despair, Lifeline is here to help.
Phone: 0808 808 8000 or 18001 0808 808 8000 for Deaf and hard of hearing Textphone users. (24 hours a day, seven days a week)
One parent families Scotland
The Lone Parent Helpline provides advice and support to single parents. Call us about anything from dealing with a break-up, sorting out child maintenance, understanding benefits, money when having a baby, studying or moving into work. We provide a free confidential friendly service that provides advice and supports your wellbeing whatever you are going through.
Phone: 0808 801 0323 (Monday to Friday 9.30am to 4pm)
Email: [email protected]
Anxiety UK
Charity providing support if you've been diagnosed with an anxiety condition.
Phone: 03444 775 774 (Mon to Fri, 9.30am to 5.30pm)
Bipolar UK
A charity helping people living with manic depression or bipolar disorder.
Peer support line: Arrange a call back from our Peer Support Line. Book in a call with our chatbot- simply type in 'I would like to speak to someone' and select a date and time that works best for you.
Email us: [email protected]
Carers UK
We provide an expert telephone advice and support service. You can talk to us, no matter where you are in the UK or how complex your query is. We do benefits checks, and advise on financial and practical matters related to caring.
Phone: 0808 808 7777 (Mon-Fri 9am until 6pm)
Email: [email protected]
Online forum: here
CALM is the Campaign Against Living Miserably, for men aged 15 to 35.
Phone: 0800 58 58 58 (daily, 5pm to midnight)
Shelter helps millions of people every year struggling with bad housing or homelessness through our advice, support, and legal services
England&Scotland phone number: 08088004444 (8am - 8pm on weekdays and 9am - 5pm weekends).
Wales phone number: 08000 495495 (9.30am – 4.00pm, Monday to Friday)
For similar housing support in Ireland and NI: Ireland and Northern Ireland
Promotes the views and needs of people with mental health problems.
Phone: 0300 123 3393 (Mon to Fri, 9am to 6pm)
Mind Cymru: 0292-0395-123 (
No Panic
Voluntary charity offering support for sufferers of panic attacks and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Offers a course to help overcome your phobia/OCD. Includes a helpline.
Phone: 0844 967 4848 (daily, 10am to 10pm)
OCD Action
Support for people with OCD. Includes information on treatment and online resources.
Phone: 0845 390 6232 (Mon to Fri, 9.30am to 5pm)
A charity run by people with OCD, for people with OCD. Includes facts, news and treatments.
Phone: 0845 120 3778 (Mon to Fri, 9am to 5pm)
HOPELINEUK is a confidential support and advice service for children and young people under the age of 35 who are experiencing thoughts of suicide, or anyone concerned that a young person could be thinking about suicide.
Phone: HOPElineUK 0800 068 4141 (9:00 am to 12:00 am midnight)
Text: 07860 039 967
Email: [email protected]
Rethink Mental Illness
Support and advice for people living with mental illness.
Phone: 0300 5000 927 (Mon to Fri, 9.30am to 4pm)
Confidential support for people experiencing feelings of distress or despair.
Phone: 116 123 (free 24-hour helpline)
Emotional support, information and guidance for people affected by mental illness, their families and carers.
SANEline: 0300 304 7000 (daily, 4.30 to 10.30pm)
Textcare: comfort and care via text message, sent when the person needs it most: (
Information on child and adolescent mental health. Services for parents and professionals.
Phone: Parents' helpline 0808 802 5544 (Mon to Fri, 9.30am to 4pm)
Veterans Gateway
The first point of contact for veterans seeking support. We put veterans and their families in touch with the organisations best placed to help with the information, advice and support they need – from healthcare and housing to employability, finances, personal relationships and more.
Phone: 0808 802 1212 Text: 81212 Email: submit here Live chat: here
First Person Plural
First Person Plural (FPP) specialises in working for and on behalf of all those affected by Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) and similar complex trauma-related dissociative identity conditions. These similar conditions include type 1 Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (DDNOS), and a type of Other Specified Dissociative Disorder (OSDD) which is described as DID-like.
Phone: 01902810082 (if we do not pick up leave a message and we will contact you as soon as possible but this might not be for a few days as our office is not staffed everyday) Email: [email protected] Twitter: @DissociationFPP
LGBT+ helplines:
Switchboard LGBT
Switchboard provides a one-stop listening service for LGBT+ people on the phone, by email and through Instant Messaging.
Phone: 03003300630 (Open 10:00-22:00 every day)
Email: [email protected]
MindLine Trans+ is a confidential emotional, mental health support helpline for people who identify as Transgender, Agender, Gender Fluid, Non-binary..
Phone: 03003305468 (Mondays and Fridays from 8pm to midnight.)
Mermaids UK
Mermaids provides a helpline aimed at supporting transgender youth up to and including the age of 19, their families and professionals working with them.
Phone: 0808 801 0400 (Open Monday - Friday; 9am - 9pm)
Email: [email protected]
Abuse helplines (child, sexual, domestic violence):
Children's charity dedicated to ending child abuse and child cruelty.
Phone: 0800 1111 for Childline for children (24-hour helpline)
0808 800 5000 for adults concerned about a child (24-hour helpline)
Advice on dealing with domestic violence.
Phone: 0808 2000 247 (24-hour helpline)
Women's Aid
Women’s Aid is the national charity working to end domestic abuse against women and children.
Email: [email protected] Live chat: Our hours are Monday to Friday 10:00am - 4:00pm, Saturday and Sunday 10:00am-12:00pm. Here
Respect Men's advice line
The Men’s Advice Line is a confidential helpline for male victims of domestic abuse and those supporting them. We offer advice and emotional support to men who experience abuse, and signpost to other vital services that help keep them and their children safe.
Call: 0808 8010327 or visit: here
Respect phoneline
The Respect Phoneline is an anonymous and confidential helpline for men and women who are harming their partners and families. We provide specialist advice and guidance to help people change their behaviours and support for those working with domestic abuse perpetrators.
Call: 0808 8024040 or visit: here
Honour based abuse/violence, forced marriage and/or female genital mutilation helplines
Freedom Charity
We aim to empower young people to feel they have the tools and confidence to support each other and have practical ways in which they can help their best friend around the issues of family relationships which can lead to early and forced marriage and dishonour based violence
Phone: 0845 607 0133 ; or text "4freedom"to 88802 (24-hour helpline)
Halo Project
Halo Project Charity is a national project that will support victims of honour-based violence, forced marriages and FGM by providing appropriate advice and support to victims. We will also work with key partners to provide required interventions and advice necessary for the protection and safety of victims.
Phone: 01642 683 045 (9am-5pm)
Karma Nirvana
Karma Nirvana is an award-winning National charity supporting victims of honour-based abuse and forced marriage. Honour crimes are not determined by age, faith, gender or sexuality, we support and work with all victims
Phone: 0800 5999 247 (Mon-Fri, 9am-5pm)
Addiction helplines (drugs, alcohol, gambling):
Alcoholics Anonymous
Phone: 0845 769 7555 (24-hour helpline)
Gamblers Anonymous
Phone: 0330 094 0322
Narcotics Anonymous
Phone: 0300 999 1212 (daily 10am to midnight)
Support for families, friends and partners affected by someone else’s addiction to drugs or alcohol.
Phone: 0300 888 3853
Al-Anon UK&Eire
We are here for anyone affected by someone else's drinking. Our Helpline is manned by a team of friendly and helpful volunteers who are also members of Al-Anon. They will listen and be happy to answer your questions
Phone: 0800 0086 811 (10am-10pm, 365 days a year)
Email: [email protected]
Alzheimer's helpline:
Alzheimer's Society
Provides information on dementia, including factsheets and helplines.
Phone: 0300 222 1122 (Mon to Fri, 9am to 5pm. Weekends, 10am to 4pm)
Bereavement helplines:
Cruse Bereavement Care
Phone: 0808 808 1677 (Mon to Fri, 9am to 5pm)
Email: [email protected]
Blue Cross for pets
If you have lost, or are facing saying goodbye to, a much loved pet and need somebody to talk to, our Pet Bereavement Support Service is here for you every day from 8.30am – 8.30pm
Phone: 0800 096 6606
Email: [email protected]
The Compassionate Friends
The Compassionate Friends is a charitable organisation of bereaved parents, siblings and grandparents dedicated to the support and care of other similarly bereaved family members who have suffered the death of a child or children of any age and from any cause
Phone: 0345 120 3785 (9:30am - 4:30pm Mon to Fri)
Email: [email protected]
Crime victims helplines:
Rape Crisis
To find your local services phone: 0808 802 9999 (daily, 12 to 2.30pm, 7 to 9.30pm)
Victim Support
Phone: 0808 168 9111 (24-hour helpline)
Eating disorders helpline:
Phone: 0808 801 0677 (adults) or 0808 801 0711 (for under-18s)
Learning disabilities helpline:
Charity working with people with a learning disability, their families and carers.
Phone: 0808 808 1111 (Mon to Fri, 9am to 5pm)
Parenting helpline:
Family Lives
Advice on all aspects of parenting including dealing with bullying.
Phone: 0808 800 2222 (Mon to Fri, 9am to 9pm. Sat to Sun, 10am to 3pm)
Relationships helpline:
The UK's largest provider of relationship support.
Mental health resources:
submitted by Paranoiadestroyer to LegalAdviceUK [link] [comments]

2020.10.18 13:45 SuperbError I managed to resolve a problem getting a Shared Care arrangement - Some Advice

TLDR: I got turned down for a Shared Care arrangement initially but managed to get it resolved. I've put some of the things I found out below that may be helpful to others struggling to get a Shared Care Agreement set up.
I wrote previously about some difficulties I was having getting a Shared Care arrangement in place following a private diagnosis. After being told no initially, I have now managed to get an arrangement in place and have had an NHS prescription for the last couple of months.
I think ultimately there was some misunderstanding as I probably didn't follow the process correctly, and so the GP possibly thought I was requesting the medication off my own back. The reason they gave me at the time was it could only be done via Shared Care following a hospital diagnosis so I did quite a bit of research around why there shouldn't be a distinction between a private and a hospital diagnosis.
I have since done a bit more research to try and broaden things out to Shared Care in general. From this it looks like the picture is different depending on which part of the country you are in. I suspect this advice applies mainly to England, I'm not sure if the other UK countries operate differently.
The first thing to find out is what classification the drug is listed at in your area. Every area will be covered by an Area Prescribing Committee which will have a Traffic Light system for a range of drugs. If the medication is Amber it is usually suitable for Shared Care, if it's Red I think you're stuck. For example, for Lisdexamfetamine:
Pan Mersey - It is purple, which from their criteria means "Medicines are considered suitable for Primary Care prescribing and/or management, following specialist initiation of therapy, with on-going communication between the Primary Care prescriber and specialist, within the framework of a Shared Care Agreement.
Coventry & Warwickshire - Also amber and suitable for Shared Care
Rotherham - It's red and so I think you might be out of luck
Looking at a few, most seem to be Amber but there are some Reds in there.
If it is Amber, then you can usually find a protocol for Shared Care somewhere on the site as well. For example, the Pan Mersey site has this specific document which then details how it should be handled and one of the Appendices is the form to use.
If there are issues after this point then it's worth taking stock of what the reasons for rejecting the request are. I used these documents in crafting my response:
NHS England - Responsibility for prescribing between Primary & Secondary/Tertiary Care - This is an official NHS document and has a lot of information about Shared Care. Section 4.4 is particularly relevant, as well as Section 2 in Annex 1 (Best Interest of the Patient is a probably a good thing to get in). Table 2 at the bottom has reasons why Shared Care might not be suitable. It is likely most won't apply apart from potentially "The GP does not feel competent in taking on clinical responsibility for the
prescribing of a specialist medicine. "
The interface between NHS and private treatment: a practical guide for doctors in England, Wales and Northern Ireland Guidance from the BMA Medical Ethics Department.pdf?X-Amz-Expires=600&X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Credential=AKIAU2VMDQYPZ55JOYGD/20201018/eu-west-1/s3/aws4_request&X-Amz-Date=20201018T112045Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Signature=156f39cef3bda630cfb000183aa3a74b323db3918b29aa07196f73f25d296f31) - This is a document from 2009 but I didn't find a more recent one, although it's no longer on the BMA website. The part starting on Page 7 headed " Should GPs issue NHS prescriptions for medication recommended during a private consultation with a consultant? " was helpful for me.
Nice Guidance on ADHD. This may be helpful for those in a Red area as it does discuss at the start that Shared Care should be used. Section 1.7.29 also says "After titration and dose stabilisation, prescribing and monitoring of ADHD medication should be carried out under Shared Care Protocol arrangements with primary care"
Those 3 are the more general ones. I referred to the protocols in my area to challenge certain aspects, and you will have to look at the relevant documentation in your area to pull anything valuable out of there that might help.
Another thing that was helpful for me as well, was that the NHS assessment service in my area states on their website that medication, once stable, will be delivered via a Shared Care arrangement. I would argue that the bit around GP not feeling competent is more difficult to justify if the CCG as a whole is using Shared Care, they should in theory have trained their GP's sufficiently, or have training available. You may need to do some research as to how your local NHS group assesses and treats ADHD. If you're able to find out they do Shared Care for medication from an NHS diagnosis then I don't see why your GP should be refusing you from a private diagnosis.
Hopefully this is some useful advice that will get people looking in the right direction if they are having trouble getting a Shared Care arrangement going. In most areas it seems like it should be possible, but being kind, I suspect that it's not something that GP's will necessarily have encountered much if at all and may need pointing in the right direction.
I didn't have to push it beyond my GP, I think if they still were saying no and you were in an Amber area you could push this further up in the CCG by following your GP's complaints procedure.
submitted by SuperbError to ADHD [link] [comments]

2020.10.14 00:12 TheGate182 Every credible source, study or paper on THE RONA that the media and Government hopes you never find and read.

COVID Facts By Doctor & Science , not Media
6% of COVID deaths in the USA were actually COVID - the rest were old age or very extremely sick people with more than 2 conditions as per the CDC - so that means somewhere around 9-10,000 died in the USA . SOURCE :
The mortality rate for the virus sits between 0.02 and 0.04% leaving the virus with a survival rate of 99.9% as per the CDC. Includes all age groups with the most up to date current numbers .
The virus doesn’t really spread on surfaces at all as per the CDC SOURCE : And here that is on the CDC :
Toronto Public Health inflates COVID numbers by 50% (Under Case Detection) SOURCE :
The Governments need there to be no effective theratpeutic, cure or treatment in order to keep Emergency Use and push a vaccine through in a year (Page 8) SOURCE:
HYDROXICHLOROQHINE is an effective treatment for SARS in 2005 - (Dr.Fauci) NIH SOURCE:
Random study on Hydroxichloroquine and Azithromicyn being effective -
Half of the COVID TESTS are not accurate creating 50% false positives. SOURCES:
PCR Tests pick up other viruses -
Maybe your PCR test shouldn’t say (+)-
Covid study from UCLA and Stanford that says people 50 -65 have a 1 in 19.1 million chance of dying
Proof it came from lab virologist - Paper by MD,PhD ,Virologist(Li-Meng Yan) Escaped from Wuhan,China on why the COVID-19 virus was bioengineered in a lab over 6 months.
Here is the SECOND RELEASE FROM LI MENG YAN(escaped Virologist phd) - Chinese Bioweapon -
CDC accidentally admitting masks don’t work . They say it won’t filter smoke (smoke is 0.4-0.7 microns - virus is 0.1 microns) -
2003 study on how well masks protect people against SARS - conclusion- they do not.
An updated study from 2015 at The University Of New South Wales about the effectiveness of the cloth masks ability to filter out infections properly - they believe higher infection rates being Because they’re dirty , not supposed to be used and a wet breeding ground for bacteria - they offer little to no resistance against viruses. -
More research put together from the NIH to prove that masks are ineffective. -
Top Doctor saying that COVID-19 is officially less deadly than the common flu now.
Chief Science Officer for Phizer says Second Wave Faked with False Positive PCR TESTS -
WHO pushed quite heavily in the beginning that masks did not work at all for healthy people - not many remember them admitting masks do not work. There have been no controlled studies done since - but their narrative has completely changed.
Canada’s intention to have COVID DETENTION (Concentration) CAMPS -
First papers published scientifically about REGENERON -
Ontario admits that they are counting non COVID deaths as COVID , and they’re not keeping track to how many times this is happening -
US Deaths 2017 (2.8 million) -
US Deaths 2018 (2.8 million) -
US Deaths 2019 (2.8 million) -
Us Deaths 2020 (2.1 Million and adding in for presumptions to 2.8 million) based on these numbers -
Canada Death Stats 1950-2020 :
Stats for Ontario Deaths by year -
David Nabarro (WHO LEADER) says new guidelines from WHO urge World Leaders to stop Lockdowns -
No Quantified Isolate of virus exist as per CDC data and document on PCR testing July 2020 (page 39) That means it’s a lie that Aus,Can, India - whoever says they isolated it , they did not.- It also means , there is no effective vaccine actually being made , Because it’s not isolated.
Here’s the same information as above on the FDA docs -
And under FOI CANADA - here is what turned up when inquired about when searching for this so called “Isolated virus” zilch , nothing - never happened- Canadian Databanks HAVE NO SUCH RECORDS -
70.2% of people who ALWAYS wear a mask get COVID - whereas those who don’t actually fall in at 3.9% - Page 4
The Great BARRINGTON Declaration , staring the lockdowns and draconian measures in dealing with COVID is doing irreparable harm to kids , teens and adults alike and need to be stopped, signed by 8100 public health scientists , 20,000 medical practitioners and 324,000 of the general public -
Grand total of 6 recorded cases of Influenza in 2020-
Covid -19 labelled PCR tests being shipped in 2017 - They changed this one to Medical Kits but the story and video can be found here - they have since changed it to say MEDICAL TEST KITS- but I WITH MY OWN EYES - saw it like this video and page shows... the archives , have all been wiped -
submitted by TheGate182 to conspiracy [link] [comments]

2020.10.13 22:46 cincbus Introducing: The Spanish Royal Family

Royal Family Twitter: u/CasaReal
King Alfonso III (1886-1941)
Gonna go back one more generation than usual to start this wild ride.
Alfonso the III's father, Alfonso XII, died while his mother was pregnant with him, thus he was King upon his birth in 1886. She served as regent until his 16th birthday when he assumed full authority as King. After a series of poor choices, he aligned his fortunes to the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, who fell from power in 1930. Municipal elections in 1931 resulted in a landslide victory for the Republican and Socialist parties, and they demanded the King abdicate the throne. The King went into exile but refused to abdicate.
While exiled, his eldest son, Alfonso, renounced his right to the throne to marry a commoner.
His second son, Jaime, renounced his rights to the throne because he was deaf.
This left his third son, Juan, as heir apparent. In 1947, General Francisco Franco declared Spain a monarchy yet again, calling it a “restoration”. However, he did not trust Juan as heir. As a result, in 1969, his son, Juan Carlos, was selected as King.
King Juan Carlos I (b. 1938) (abdicated)
Juan Carlos is the grandson of Alfonso XIII, the last king of Spain before the monarchy was abolished in 1931. He was born in exile in Rome, however was allowed back to Spain in 1948 to be further educated there. He joined the army, completing his officer training from 1955-1957. Afterwards, he spent time in both the naval school and the air force school, and later studied law, international political economy and public finance at the University of Madrid.
He was selected to be King of Spain over his father, Juan, by General Franco.
So, why did Franco bring back the monarchy? I found this answer online:
“We’re accustomed to believing a tyrant like Franco could do anything he wanted. Yet, in reality, his options were very limited, amounting to:
a) Do nothing OR appoint another military strongman to take his place.
b) Restore the republic.
c) Restore the monarchy.
There really are no further choices. Regarding (a), Franco was well aware that dictatorships are little more than the cult surrounding the person of the dictator, who is unable to transfer the cult to any 3rd party. So, a dead dictator equates to a dead dictatorhip, perhaps not immediately but before very long the ‘Franco Regime Without Franco’ was bound to implode. Franco accepted this to be an awkward truth, but he swallowed the bitter pill nonetheless.
Option (b) was never in the cards — Franco detested the Republic he fought to unseat and never even considered bring one back to govern Spain post-mortem.
That only leaves option (c). For Franco, the issue was not Monarchy Vs. Republic but rather (i) what sort of monarchy, and (ii.) incarnated by whom? The choices might seem straight-forward, but reality was rather complex since the legitimate heir to the throne (Juan de Bourbon, Count of Barcelona) was a man with whom Franco agreed on practically nothing. The Count of Barcelona made his political philosophies publicly know in the so-called Laussane Manifesto (Mar, 1945), the contents of which were diametrically opposed to the Franco Regime on practically all matters of importance.
Hence, in ’47 Franco did the only thing he regarded as workable — restoring the monarchy in theory but leaving the throne vacant, pending an eventual nomination to fill the seat. The temporary vacancy last 22 years when the Count’s son (Juan Carlos I) was officially designated as heir to the dual roles of head-of-state & commander-in-chief of the armed forces.”
Furthermore, Franco disliked Juan (father of Juan Carlos), whom he suspected of being an Anglophile (Franco despised the British and referred to Great Britain as “perfidious Albion”); he was also determined to be the sole arbiter of Spain’s destiny. And so he was. For the next thirty-six years, Franco remained the country’s unchallenged caudillo, or strongman, and although he declared Spain a monarchy once again, in 1947, he kept the throne empty, leaving Don Juan to languish and fret in neighboring Portugal, even as Franco himself assumed the role of dispenser of noble titles.
In a cruelly Shakespearean twist, Franco asked Don Juan to send him his son, Juan Carlos, who was then ten, to be educated and groomed under Franco’s supervision. In 1969, when Juan Carlos was thirty-one, Franco summoned him and informed the young man of his decision to make him his successor, with the title of King of Spain . (Excerpt from this article)
Juan Carlos met and consulted with Franco many times, standing next to him at ceremonies, publicly supporting his regime, and praising his government. Franco gave full control to Juan Carlos 3 weeks before his death in 1975. Juan Carlo’s position was further legitimized on 1977 when his father formally renounced his claim to the throne.
On paper, Juan Carlos retained fairly extensive reserve powers. He was the guardian of the Constitution and was responsible for ensuring that it was obeyed. In practice, since the passage of the Constitution (and especially since 1982), he took a mostly non-partisan and representative role, acting almost entirely on the advice of the government.
Juan Carlos enjoyed extreme popularity in Spain for many years until multiple scandals (detailed below) were made public about him and his family. As a result, he abdicated the throne on behalf of his son.
Coup D'Etat
Ever since the dictator Francisco Franco had died in 1975, Spain had been changing at the speed of light. Democratic reform was the watchword of the decade, and each reform came one after the other. King Juan Carlos had handed power to parliament and instituted a new constitution. It was all way too fast for Spain's conservatives. According to, it came to a head on February 23, 1981. Lieutenant Colonel Antonio Tejero led 200 members of the civil guard in invading the Cortes, Spain's legislature building. They fired shots in the air and took the parliament hostage.
Spaniards were glued to their television sets for 18 hours as the band of civil guards held the Cortes. King Juan Carlos appealed to the Spanish army to condemn these renegades and affirm their loyalty to the new constitution. The army did and the bandits had to retreat in shame, thus preserving Spain's democracy.
Shooting of Little Brother
In 1956, at age 18, he shot his younger brother Alfonso in the head while the two were playing with a revolver. He has maintained throughout his life that it was an accident, however Alfonso passed away as a result of his injuries.
The financial scandal
Juan Carlos’s daughter, Princess Cristina, is married to Inaki Urdangarin. Urdangarin and his ex-business associate, Diego Torres, were the leading figures in the Nóos Institute, a non-profit that secured no-bid contracts from the regional governments of Valencia and the Balearic Islands using Urdangarin’s influence.Urdangarin and Torres also used their non-profit to divert around €6.2 million from public contracts secured for organizing sports events into private accounts. Urdangarin’s wife, Cristina de Borbón, sat on the board of a company, Aizoon, that was allegedly used to channel part of these funds. She was made to testify in the case, and was ultimately fined for having benefited from her husband’s scheme, but was acquitted of tax fraud complicity.
In June 2018 he was sentenced to 5 years and 10 months in prison; he is currently imprisoned in Ávila.
The hunting trip
In 2012 the King injured himself on an elephant hunting trip in Botswana. At a time when Spainairds were suffering from a lagging economy, this trip was viewed as obscene in terms of expenses and extravagance. Spain’s unemployment was at 23%, and nearly 50% for young workers. To make matters worse, he was the honorary president of the Spanish branch of the World Wildlife Fund.
The public was only made aware of the trip because the King was injured and had to be helicoptered from the scene. Even worse - his mistress was there with him.
In 2014 Juan Carlos announced his plans to abdicate the throne in favor of his son, Felipe.
Post-Abdication Scandals
More recently, it emerged that Juan Carlos had accepted a previously undeclared “gift” of a hundred million dollars from Saudi Arabia’s late King Abdullah—allegedly a bribe in return for his help in arranging a lucrative fast-rail-construction contract.
Further roiling the public, one of Juan Carlos’s former lovers, a Danish-born events organizer named Corinna zu Sayn-Wittgenstein—who had accompanied him on his Botswana safari—has acknowledged that Juan Carlos had given her, some years ago, sixty-five million euros (worth about eighty-four million dollars at the time). This “gift” is believed to have come out of the funds given to Juan Carlos by King Abdullah.
The latest bombshell shaking the royal house involves secret audio recordings of princess Corinna zu Sayn-Wittgenstein, a German aristocrat living in Monte Carlo who for years has been romantically linked to the 80-year-old former king and now accuses him of using her name to buy property in Morocco, of accumulating a secret fortune hidden in several Swiss bank accounts under the name of one of his cousins, Alvaro d'Orleans Bourbon, of using fake cut-outs to commit tax fraud and of taking millions in commissions on state contracts.
As a result, the current King Felipe announced he would renounce his personal inheritance from his father and that his father would no longer receive a royal allowance. Afterwards, Juan Carlos vanished.
In August of this year (2020), Juan Carlos sent a public letter to King Felipe VI, saying that he would be leaving the country due to “the public repercussions that certain past events in [his] private life are generating.” Later reports speculated that he had either gone to Portugal, where his father, Don Juan de Borbón, lived in exile for part of his life, or to the Dominican Republic, which he has visited multiple times. It’s a sign that the figurehead of Spanish democracy understands that he has endangered his legacy—and the monarchy itself.
It has not been published where Juan Carlos is currently living, however photos have been obtained that appear to show Juan Carlos disembarking a plane in Abu Dhabi.
Read more:,took%20during%20Spain's%20financial%20crisis.
Juan Carlos married Princess Sofia of Greece and Denmark, daughter of the King of Greece in 1962. In an effort for young, suitable European royals to meet and mingle (and also to boost tourism in Greece), Sophia’s mother arranged a Mediterranean cruise on the Greek yacht Agamemnon in 1954. Several teenaged and twenty-something royals were invited on the trip touring a handful of Greek islands. Juan Carlos and Sofia were among the young royals on the cruise.
They met up at additional weddings and events over the next several years, and were officially reunited in Rome at the 1960 Olympic Games. The Greek royal family held a dinner for the Spanish guests onboard their ship, Polemistis. Following the Olympics, Juan Carlos and his family were invited to spend Christmas 1960 in Greece.
In 1961, Sofia traveled to the UK to attend the wedding of the Duke and Duchess of Kent. Juan Carlos was picked to serve as her escort. Following the wedding, Juan Carlos spent the summer of 1961 in Greece and the two announced their engagement in 1961.
Due to Juan Carlos’ uneasy position in Spain, an Athens wedding was planned for May, the beginning of the tourist season in Greece. The celebrations involved 4 ½ months of nearly round-the-clock preparation headed by Colonel Dimitri Levidis, Grand Marshal of the Greek royal court.
Their marriage has never been a happy one and Juan Carlos is known to have had multiple affairs. Though the King is in exile, they remain married, however it is known that they have lived largely separate lives for many years.
Their wedding and more
You can see him giving a speech in English here:
Queen Sofia (b. 1938)
Sofia is the eldest child of King Paul of Greece, and is the daughter, sister, wife, and mother of a King. She was educated at a boarding school in Germany, then studied childcare, music, and archeology in Athens. She was a reserve member of Greece’s gold medal winning sailing team at the 1960 Olympic games.
Sofia is now immensely popular in Spain. She is known to quietly endure the monarchy’s trials, putting her own professional obligations ahead of anything else. This was not, however, always the case. Throughout her reign she has been regarded with skepticism because of her foreign background and mediocre Spanish skills.
In 2008, Queen Sofía shared some of her political ideology during an interview with journalist Pilar Urbano. One of them was her belief that same-sex marriage should not be called marriage. "If those persons want to live together, dress up as bride and groom and get married, they can do so, but that should not be called marriage because it is not," the queen is quoted as saying in Urbano's book.
Her controversial comments about same-sex marriage particularly elicited outrage among liberal groups, and the Royal Palace quickly shared an apology but qualified it by implying she had been misquoted.
Though her husband is in exile, Sofia has remained in Spain and continues to undertake official duties on behalf of her son, the King. She is a vital weapon in Felipe VI’s battle to shore up the popularity of a monarchy hit by scandal and now, suggestions from some politicians that it might have seen better days. Consistently one of the most admired members of the Spanish Royal Family, the enduring affection and respect that Queen Sofía inspires will be needed by her son as he faces a turbulent future for the monarchy.
She speaks Greek, English, German and Spanish.
See her giving a speech in English
King Felipe VI (b. 1968)
Ascended the throne in 2014 upon the abdication of his father. He is head of state and commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armed Forces. He attended high school in Canada and studied at the Autonomous University of Madrid. He completed his academic studies by obtaining a Master of Science in Foreign Service degree from Georgetown, where he was the roommate of his cousin Crown Prince Pavlos of Greece.
From 1985-1993 he spent time completing his military training.
Felipe speaks Spanish, Catalan, French, English, and Greek.
He was a member of the Spanish Olympic sailing team at the Barcelona games in 1992 and was the Spanish team’s flag bearer.
The exact details around how Felipe and Letizia met are unknown, however it is reported that they met at a dinner party in 2003. They dated in secret for more than a year before surprising the public with their engagement in 2003.The two were married in 2004 in Madrid.
Her Gown
More on the wedding, more here
Watch their wedding (it POURED rain)
See Felipe meet Barack Obama (in English)
Author's Note: Google photos of Felipe. You won't be sorry.
Queen Letizia (b. 1972)
Letizia was born in Spain, the daughter of a journalist and registered nurse. She completed a bachelor’s degree in journalism as well as a master’s degree in audiovisual journalism. She worked as the evening anchor of the TVE evening news, the most viewed newscast in Spain. She reported from Washington DC in 2000 on the presidential elections, 2001 from Ground Zero, and 2003 from Iraq.
She was actually married once before Felipe to a writer and high school teacher after dating for almost 10 years. Their marriage lasted one year.
Letizia is far from Spain’s most popular member of the royal family. There was a public spat with her mother-in-law, and it made news when she scolded her fiance for interrupting her during their engagement interview.
She is known for her fashion and beauty. In 2008 she underwent surgery on her nose to “correct a respiratory problem”, however afterwards her nose was notably different.
Author's Note: I feel like I gave a negative impression of Letizia here, but to be honest it's a bit hard to find information about heher personality. I would love someone who is more familiar to fill us all in.
Watch her speak in English here
Felipe and Letizia have two daughters:
Crown Princess Leonor, Princess of Asturias (b. 2005)
Leonor is heir presumptive to the throne of Spain. She does not go by Crown Princess, but rather by Princess of Asturias, the title given to the heirs in Spain (like Prince of Wales in the UK). The Spanish monarchy operates under a system of male-preference cognatic primogeniture, meaning if Felipe were to have a male heir he would replace Leonor in the line of succession. Felipe and Letizia appear to be done having children, however.
In 2018, she was invested by her father with the Order of the Golden Fleece, the most senior order in Spain and the highest award the King can bestow. She is one of only 4 females to be inducted into it.
The other 3 women are Queen Elizabeth, Princess Beatrix, and Queen Margrethe of Denmark (no big deal!!!)
See the proud fathedaughter moment here.
In 2019, at age 14, she gave a speech in both English and Spanish at the Princess of Asturias Awards Ceremony. (such poise!!)
Another speech (her proud parents *I'm crying*!!)
Infanta Sofia (b. 2007)
Sofia is the second daughter of the King and Queen. She is a student in Madrid.
See photos of the family from Spain’s National Day on 10/12.
Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo (b. 1963)
Elena is the eldest child of King Juan Carlos I and Queen Sofia, however because Spain operates under male-preference cognatic primogeniture, her younger brother Felipe is King of Spain.
She married Jamie de Marichalar y Saenz de Tejada in Seville and has two children:
Elena and Jamie divorced in 2009. She undertakes engagements on behalf of her brother, the King.
Infanta Cristina, (stripped of title Duchess of Palma de Mallorca) (b. 1965)
Cristina was born in Madrid, the younger daughter of the King and Queen. She is a sailor and competed in the 1988 summer Olympics. She completed a degree in political science from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, then an MA in international relations from New York University in 1990. She then worked at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris.
She speaks Spanish, Catalan, English, French, and Greek.
Cristina married handball player Inaki Urdangarin in Barcelona in 1997. They have four children:
I talked about this above, but she and her husband were investigated and tried for fraud for their ties to a corruption scandal involving a company they owned. Cristina was acquitted, however her husband is currently serving a prison sentence.
Because of the scandal, her brother officially stripped her of her title in 2015. Her right of succession and the royal title of Infanta were unaffected.
Read more about the scandal here
Random note but the Spanish royals vacation in Palma de Mallorca for the summer each year and always produce some of my favorite family photos.
See some here, here, here, or just google them.
A Monarchy in Trouble
Though Felipe and his mother, Queen Sofia, are well-liked, support for the monarchy in Spain has always been thin at best. Coupled with all of the scandals discussed above, Felipe is tasked with saving a monarchy that at times is extremely unpopular with the public. He has had to publicly distance himself from his father, his sister, and other family friends involved in these scandals. This has eroded the appearance of family unity in the monarchy.
From an article:
Despite his attractive family and relative youth, Felipe has struggled to maintain the level of popularity he had heading into his current position. As head of state and commander in chief of the armed forces as well as king, he looks all-powerful on paper, but like many other royals his role is more figurehead than policy-maker. Spain's monarch is looked to for guidance and leadership, though, and he can certainly still be blamed when things go wrong.
Felipe, who in 2015 cut his own salary by almost 20 percent as the country continued to pull itself out of its recession, received a four-minute ovation after delivering his annual address marking the opening of Spain's new legislative session in February, in which he said that the opposing parties that have formed the current coalition government must come together, that "the time has come for words, for arguments and for reasoning, from a position of mutual respect."
To add to his troubles, Catalonia has been trying to split from Spain and gain independence for quite sometime, and Catalonian’s do not want a monarchy. In fact, they recently passed a non-binding motion condemning the monarchy in the wake of Juan Carlos’s departure from Spain. The proposal “Catalonia is a republic and does not want a king” was passed by 69 votes in favor and 65 against. In a recent article out of Catalonia, less than 15% of Catalans prefer having a king to a republic.
As a result, Felipe and Letizia have been pulling out all of the stops to present a united family front and a strong monarchy to the public - they have been undertaking public engagements more often, invited the press into their home, and we’re seeing more and more of their two daughters in an attempt to improve their favorability in Spain.
From 2018 -
From 2019 -
From 2020 -
submitted by cincbus to RoyalsGossip [link] [comments]

2020.10.13 21:00 DeanG1 October 19th 2020 W.H.O, ‘surprise announcement’ of a second wave. Prepare for round 2.

Global events in relation to the 11th March 2020 W.H.O. announcement of a pandemic, 2020, and the inevitable second wave announcement on:
October 19th 2020.
Edit: I did a video with most of these in. Uploaded to the still uncensored platform brandnewtube. Link here:
This date was easily ascertained as the 11th March 2020 announcement was exactly 222 months after 9/11. So surely they wouldn’t just add 222 days to that to get to 19th October 2020 would they? Yes, yes they would is the answer.
During the text, when you see the number ‘113’, this can mean ’11 x 3’ = 33, or 11th March 2020, which is the date that the W.H.O declared phase 1 of this totally unplanned global pandemic.
It’s worth noting that when you see ‘116’ this is often coded as an upside down 911. Also, the English ordinal gematria value of ‘19th October’ is 116. The English ordinal gematria of ‘19 October’ is 88.
You’ll notice the usual numbers, 11, 22, 33, 88, 96, 666, 911, 116 etc. You know the ones, the fun ones, the ‘we are evil Sith lords and belong to a serious club of powerful dark people who shut down economies and inflict pain on kids’ numbers. Those numbers.
Some of these dates/events have probably been left as ‘conspiracy candy’ to find (because they are really funny as well as evil these folk). Example, the Bill Gates patent WO/2020/060606 (666), which was registered on March 26th 2020.
Excuse any errors. There will be lots of other events I know. The number of days between that are noted include the end date unless specified.
Please note, I am not an expert on Gematria which will be apparent. I have looked into psyops for years and know the usual ‘wet bandits calling card numbers’. 666 was a bit spooky when I saw the Omen aged 8, it’s a bit naff now. Some people seem to be REALLY into them though, I mean actually ‘sitting round a table and planning global events stroking long haired cats’ level of into numbers. All that stuff bores me, I just see the patterns and numbers, it’s a fun Autistic trait I have that bores others shitless.
A couple might seem tenuous, stick with it though, there are some obvious ones.
Below are the dates of events and days between pandemic announcement dates. The W.H.O. 11th March 2020 one and the totally unscripted announcement upcoming one on:
Monday 19th October 2020:
It’s worth pointing out that the last ‘pandemic’ was in 1918, the first confirmed cases of the Spanish Flu in the US are reported at Fort Riley, Kansas on: 11th March 1918 (11/3 33 113)
Moving on a few decades….
Monday, October 19th 1987: this was the day now referred to as ‘Black Monday’, this was famous financial crash that wiped 22% of the stock market. This was 33 years exactly (excluding the end date) before the proposed date of October 19th 2020.
11th March 2004: The Madrid train bombings. 199 months, 9 days (666) including before 19th October 2020
Thursday, 28 April 2016: Western African Ebola virus epidemic. “last case tested negative on 28 April 2016 in Monrovia” 3 years, 10 months, 13 days (113) before 11th March 2020
Thursday, 9 June 2016: The last flare up of Ebola in the Western African Ebola virus epidemic. 4 years and 4 months (44), and 11 days before 19th October 2020. *There are a lot more of the Ebola ones, this was all programming for the main crappy event we are now in.
June 1st, 2016: Gotthard Train Tunnel’s weird and crappy opening ceremony. “Switzerland unveiled the world’s longest and deepest railroad tunnel with a ceremony that was supposed to look deeply occultist, satanic and spooky, but just looked silly and daft,” This was 3 years, 9 months, 11 days (911) before 11th March 2020 Also it was 4 years, 4 months (44) and 19 days before 19th October 2020. 19 is a number which represents surrender apparently, link below explaining that.
Also just pointing out that March 11th 2011 was also the date of the Japan tsunami and ensuing Fukushima nuclear incident, 9 (3x3) years exactly before March 11th 2020 (I’m not claiming this event was manufactured, I’m just noting the date)
May 15th 2018: This was the date of the prophetic Clade X pandemic training exercise, at the Johns Hopskins University, preparing for the simulated events we are currently going through. This was 666 days before March 11th 2020, and 888 days before October 19th 2020 (excluding end date) Also, it was 88 weeks before the first Travel-related Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Detected in United States Tuesday, January 21st 2020.
11th Jan 2017: Fauci says oddly “No doubt Trump will face surprise infectious disease outbreak during his presidency” 3 years, 2 months, 1 day to 11th March 2020 (Countdown 3—2—1) 3 years, 9 months, 9 days or 196 weeks and 6 days (666) before 19th October 2020
October 18th 2019: This was the date of the next fortunate pandemic training exercise for global representatives, called ‘Event 201’. An event training for events very very similar to the ones we are going through now, almost as if they knew it was coming. The time between this exercise and the date of the first travel-related case of 2019 novel coronavirus detected in United States - Tuesday, January 21, 2020 was: This was 3 months and 3 days (33) OR excluding end date 96 days. (96 = Satanism in English ordinal gematria) This was also exactly 1 month before the Sunday, 17 November 2019 before the amended first infection date, and also 1 month, 13 (113) days before the Sunday, 1 December 2019 initial first reported infection date (both linked below)
November 7th 201: Bill Gates’s prophetic ‘EXPLAINED’ episode premiered on Netflix. “Explained looks at the looming danger of global pandemic.” Released 11 months, 13 days (1113) before 19th October 2020
November 21st 2019: 22 killed in displacement camp in an attack by Syrian government in Idlib province. 111 days before March 11th 2020 333 days before October 19th 2020
December 19th 2018: Ebola outbreak. The W.H.O. announced Over 300 people have died of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo. (CNN) Also President Donald Trump announces victory over the Islamic State and planned withdrawal of US troops from Syria. This was 1 year, 2 months, 22 days before March 11th 2020 (222) 1 year, 10 months, 1 day before October 19th 2019 (111) Excluding end date this is also exactly 22 months before October 19th 2020
December 19th 2019: Australian Bush fires are officially declared an national emergency: “December 19th 2019 Australian state of New South Wales announces 7-day state of emergency amid extreme heat and over 100 bushfires that have burnt for two months.”
2 months, 22 days before March 11th 2020 (222) This date is 10 months and 1 days (11) before October 19th 2020
1st December 2019: This was initially reported as the date of first infection which was, 3 month and 11 days (113) to 11 March 2020 ALSO 10 months and 19 days (1019) before the next announcement on Oct 19th *incidentally, just digressing to the multitude of entertain productions that are also tied in with these dates, the Walking Dead premier date to the date for the first infection was: 9 years, 1 month and 1 day. 911. Coincidence of course. There are 100’s more of these though, they at least try to be ‘fun’ whilst damaging children globally.
The news then later reported that the first case was: 17th November 2019. Which is 116 days before 11th March 2020 AND 11 months, 3 days (113) before 19th Oct 2020
Bot the above dates are reported here: )
12 December 2019: The United Kingdom general election. 13 weeks before 11th March 2020 44 weeks and 4 days (444) before 19th October 2020 (excluding end date)
January 22nd 2020: Netflix released a very well timed mini-series documentary called: “Pandemic: How to Prevent an Outbreak.” This was 1 month, 19 days before March 11th 2020 (911) Also, this was released 96 days after the Event 201 training exercise (Satanism is 96 is English Gematria, Satan is the guy who sings in the Southpark film) Which was also released 1 year, 1 month, 16 days (1 116) after May 15th, 2018 Clade-x training exercise.
Sunday, January 26th 2020: Kobe Bryant dies in helicopter crash: Kobe Bryant has a value in English Ordinal Gematria of 113 (March 11th, 33) 13 days later on Friday, February 7th 2020 private service was held in the father-daughter pair’s honour in ‘Corona’ Del Mar, California, 33 days later was March 11th and W.H.O. announcement of global pandemic. (NOTE: I’m not claiming this event was a hoax or intentional, there are some odd things about the reports in terms of the chopper model though. I’m just noting the strange coincidences with the dates and ceremony venue name of ‘Corona’)
Monday, 24th February 2020: Kobe Bryant ceremony, 2 weeks and 2 days (22) before March 11th 2020 (excluding end date) Public tribute held at Los Angeles’ Staples Centre, where Kobe played during his 20-year athletic career with the Los Angeles Lakers.
Saturday, 29th February 2020: First coronavirus associated death in the USA. “Health officials in Washington state said on Saturday a coronavirus patient has died, marking the first death in the U.S. from COVID-19, the illness associated with the virus.” 11 days before March 11th 2020: 33 weeks and 3 days (333) before Oct 19th 2020.
THEN the 11th March 2020 W.H.O. announcement of a global pandemic, a time when 97% of people still actually believed the news was real and so started shopping wearing surgical equipment.
March 26th 2020: Bill Gates registered WO/2020/060606. The patent application was filed on April 22nd 2019 AND on June 20th 2019, this was by Microsoft Technology Licensing, LLC. The title of the patent is "Cryptocurrency system using body activity data". (I personal think this is left as a DBA strategy, discredit by association, to make conspiracy theorists sound more nuts, maybe it’s real though, wouldn’t surprise me if it was)
3 dates here: April 22nd 2019, June 20th 2019 and March 26th 2020 April 22nd 2019 to the June 20th 2019 is 1 month, 30 days (13) April 22nd 2019 to March 11th 2020 = 10 months, 19 days (1019 = October 19th) March 11th 2020 to March 26th 2020 = 2 weeks and 2 days (22)
June 28th 2020: This the day of another U.S. mass shooting, 9 (3 x 3) people killed. This was 110 days after 11th March 2020 (11) and 113 days BEFORE October 19th 2020 “Lone gunman attacks offices of Capital Gazette newspaper in Annapolis, Maryland, killing nine”
August 3rd 2020: 77 days before October 19th 2020 (or 11 weeks and 1 day end day included) was hurricane Isaias (Isaias in full reduction gematria is 22) “Hurricane Isaias makes landfall in the US as a Category 1 hurricane near Ocean Isle Beach, North Carolina” *not making claims about weather manipulation, I haven’t looked into it, juts noting the date.
18th September 2020: 3 weeks and 3 weeks (33) before October 19th 2020 BBC news alert and breaking news. “Covid UK seeing second wave says Boris Johnson” Shock! (Pre-programming by numbers for the 19th Oct shit show)
21st Sept 2020: UK BBC Breaking news alert. Possible doubling of infections. Covid-19: UK faces 50,000 cases a day by October without action 696 hours before 19th October 2020 The Gematria value of 696 is ‘Secret Order of Illuminati’ (apparently it is anyway, I don’t like using the word Illuminati, I am sure the the hard men WANT to be called that, wankers will do)
October 1st 2020: The inevitable ‘Trump gets Covid story’ 33 days before the Nov 3rd (113) election. To be fair they couldn’t make it more obvious. *He the the latest in a long list of world leaders and dignitaries to get Covid, astonishingly large odds of this happening, will list the ones my friend found underneath these dates.
October 6th 2020: 13 days before 19th October 2020 Bill Gates uploads a shit PR video called ‘Bill Gates’s Heroes in the field, Dr. Firdausi Qadri’ to his Youtube channel, which as you’ll see from the video I linked below, he often codes the dates 11th March 2020 and 19th October 2020, just to be sinister and cryptic, as well as a dick. This is a link to a video I made showing all the dates he coded, this is on YouTube channe This is probably the best evidence of both these dates being coded in. It was uploaded to Brandnewtube and had thousands of views, but the site has been hacked now and I can’t access it. *It’s clear that the uncensored platform is on a take down list.
October 11th 2020: 1 week and 3 days (13) before 19th October 2020 “W.H.O. Condemns Coronavirus Lockdowns.” This is shameless blatant spin create the illusion of care and rationality before the 19th October 2020, don’t fall for it, they tell fibs.
Then on we go to November 3rd 2020: The US Election which just happens to be 2 weeks and 2 days after October 19th. (22)
END.(more fun to follow)
Then onward into a Brave New World we go…
This is in honour of the world leaders and royalty who all caught covid as bravely fought back:
“THE PRESIDENT OF THE USA contracted the ugly COVID virus - but is now fully recovered.
THE PRIME MINISTER OF THE UNITED KINGDOM contracted the ugly COVID virus - but is now fully recovered.
THE PRESIDENT OF BRAZIL contracted the ugly COVID virus - but is now fully recovered.
PRINCE CHARLES of the ROYAL FAMILY contracted the ugly COVID virus - but is now fully recovered.
PRINCE ALBERT OF MONACO contracted the ugly COVID virus - but is now fully recovered.
FORMER PRESIDENT OF ITALY Silvio Berlusconi contracted the ugly COVID virus (age 84), who is now fully recovered.
THE WIFE OF CANADA'S PRESIDENT Justin Trudeau contracted the ugly COVID virus, who is now fully recovered.
And now they are saying that the PRESIDENT OF BURUNDI (who dared oppose the Covid scam and kicked out of his country the W.H.O. representatives) "probably died with Covid" – same with former PRESIDENT OF INDIA, Pranab Mukherjee.
What are the odds?”
Questioning Covid-19 websites, just in case anyone is any doubt this is all bollocks.
Can I also just say ‘there is only one Ian Brown, and Bill Gates is a [email protected]
That’s it, bye.
submitted by DeanG1 to conspiracy [link] [comments]

2020.10.13 13:06 StevenStevens43 King Art Oenfer VI

King Art Oenfer VI
King Art Oenfer VI:
This, is another King Art Oenfer article.
It is King Art Oenfer VI.
However as King Art Oenfer is becoming part of a series, it would be silly to read the fifth part before reading the first, second, third & forth part, in that order.
So i will leave the link below for the previous articles, you can read them, then come back and read this one.
King Art Oenfer & Son - Part one
Gallus the Mac - Part two
King Art Oenfer III & The barbarica conspiriatio - Part three
King Art Oenfer V & IV - Part four
Link for photo
King Arthur
Constantine & Constans.
So, i will begin this article like a i begin a lot of articles, and that is investigating the claims made in British legends, and in particular, Geoffrey of Monmouth.
I will also be investigating the criticisms against Geoffrey of Monmouth's work, and attempting to establish whether those criticisms are constructive, or whether or not they expose the ignorance of certain modern day scholars and historians.
I will begin with a character named Ambrosius Aurelianus.
He is supposed to be a king of Britain that gets involved with another king of Britain, named Vortigern, whom has been covered in previous articles.
According to Geoffrey, Ambrosius Aurelianus is the son of Constantine.
The constantines will require no introduction, as the link between the Art Oenfer and the Constantines has been well and truly established in the previous Art Oenfer articles.
But for those that skipped the previous articles, then you will just have to take my word for it, that the Constantine family would now appear to be very much favourites for being the family behind "thee" actual alleged King Arthur, when we finally get there.
But we are not there yet.
Now, i will begin by pointing out modern day historians and scholars first dig at the slightly "gargled" Geoffrey of Monmouth.
Let us not forget, we are paying historians to research and report accurate non opinionated history, not to be grammar students.
Is two seperate things.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
Ambrosius Aurelianus appears in later pseudo-chronicle tradition beginning with Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae with the slightly garbled name Aurelius Ambrosius, now presented as son of a King Constantine. King Constantine's eldest son Constans is murdered at Vortigern's instigation,
Link for photo#/media/File:Constantineiii.jpg)
Constantine III coin
So, was this Ambrosius Aurelianus mentioned in any official accounts, outside of those considered legendary.
The answer is in fact, yes.
In the accounts of Saint Germanus, there was a cleric named Constantius, and Constantius would most likely be the son of Constantine III, just like Geoffrey's Ambrosius Aurelianus.
Visit to Britain
Constantius also recounts the miraculous healing of the blind daughter of 'a man with tribunician power'.[2] This use of the word tribune may imply the existence of some form of post-Roman government system. However, in Constantius' lifetime tribune had acquired a looser definition, and often was used to indicate any military officer, whether part of the Imperial army or part of a town militia.
Germanus led the native Britons to a victory against Pictish and Saxon raiders, at a mountainous site near a river, of which Mold in North Wales is the traditional location.
Link for photo
Saint Germanus
Saint Germanus:
To find out why Saint Germanus is in Britain fighting a war during this period, please see this article below, and then come back and read this one, as i will not have enough room in this article to go over already covered ground.
The confessio of Saint Palladius <<<<< Link for article
Link for photo-_stained_glass,_Saint_Patrick-_detail.jpg)
Saint Patrick
Constantius of Lyon:
Now Constantius of Lyon was of very high standing and was very much a church leader.
Constantius of Lyon
Constantius of Lyon (fl. c. AD 480) was a cleric from what is now the Auvergne) in modern-day France, who wrote the Vita Germani, or Life of Germanus, a hagiography of Germanus of Auxerre. The hagiography was written some time during the second half of the fifth century, and was commissioned by Patiens, bishop of Lyon.[1]
Constantius was a friend of Bishop Lupus of Troyes and Sidonius Apollinaris, with whom he corresponded, and several letters from them are included in his published letter-collection.
Antipope Felix II:
And the Constantines have been held in high regard by the church ever since Constantine the Great issued the edict of Milan, and Constantinius II banished one Pope and installed another.
Antipope Felix II
Antipope Felix, an archdeacon of Rome, was installed as Pope in AD 355 after the Emperor Constantius II banished the reigning Pope, Liberius, for refusing to subscribe to a sentence of condemnation against Saint Athanasius.[1]
And Ambrosius Aurelianus was thought by Gildas, to be very much a church person.
His parents wore the purple.
According to Gildas
a gentleman who, perhaps alone of the Romans, had survived the shock of this notable storm. Certainly his parents, who had worn the purple, were slain in it. His descendants in our day have become greatly inferior to their grandfather's [avita] excellence. Under him our people regained their strength, and challenged the victors to battle. The Lord assented, and the battle went their way.[3]
Aristocratic robe:
And wearing purple is thought to have been a sign of high aristocracy.
During this era, Roman emperors and Church leaders, wore purple robes.
Scholarship questions
Roman emperors and male Patricians) wore clothes with a purple band to denote their class so the reference to purple may be to an aristocratic heritage.
Ambriosius family:
Now that i have cleared up that Constantinius is an elite church leader, i will tackle the first criticism of Geoffrey of Monmouth.
Apparently Geoffrey of Monmouth's claim that Ambrosius and Uther were hustled into exile in Brittany after the death of their parents, does not fit with the account of modern day historians and scholars choice of reliable historian.
Which is Gildas.
However, you just have to look at the quote above marked "according to Gildas", to see that Gildas speaks of Ambrosius Aurelianus's parents being slain.
Though he definitely appears to believe that Ambrosius Aurelianus survived.
So what the modern day historians and scholars have to say in the quote below, could be considered by some a black lie.
Perhaps an error, by others.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
King Constantine's eldest son Constans is murdered at Vortigern's instigation, and the two remaining sons (Ambrosius and Uther, still very young) are quickly hustled into exile in Brittany. (This does not fit with Gildas' account, in which Ambrosius' family perished in the turmoil of the Saxon uprisings.)
Constantine III:
And we already know that it is a fact that in 411 AD, Constantine III was executed.
Surrender and execution#Surrender_and_execution)
Constantius imprisoned the former soldier and had him beheaded on his way to Ravenna[citation needed] in either August or September 411.[25]#citenote-25) His head, on a pole, was presented to Emperor Honorius on 18 September. It was later displayed outside Carthage.[[26]](
Constans II:
And one of Constantine III's sons, was indeed executed by the historical Gerontius.
Thus, the Constantines being partly massacred is consistant with contemporary history.
[6]#citenote-constans2-6) With the support of the barbarians, Gerontius took over Constantine's territory; in 411, he captured the city of Vienne and put Constans to death.[[8]](
Link for photo#/media/File:Siliqua_Constans_II_Arelate.jpg)
Constans II coin
The Groans of Britain:
Now, in the quote below, Geoffrey is once again accused of Contradicting Gildas, who is alleged to have placed the Groans of Britain to a date between 440 AD and 450 AD, which contradicts Geoffrey's claim that Ambrosius could possible have been the son of a Constantine III that died 30 or 40 years before the Groans took place.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
The chronology offered by Geoffrey for the early life of Ambrosius contradicts Gildas and Nennius, and is also internally inconsistent.[16] The Groans of the Britons involves an appeal by the Britons to Roman consul "Agitius". This person has been identified with Flavius Aetius (d. 454), magister militum ("master of soldiers") of the Western Roman Empire and consul of the year 446. The Groans are generally dated to the 440s and 450s, preceding the death of Aetius. If Geoffrey's Constantine rose to the throne immediately following the Groans, this would place his reign in this period.[16]
Gemitus Britannorum:
So let us first look at what the Groans of Britain are.
But, i will just say first, whilst i am not going to look into it, i actually do not believe that Gildas even said this.
If he did, then he is the worst historian the world ever saw.
Quite simply, the Groans of Britain was a plee made by Britons to Rome for foreign aid after they were abandoned by Constantine III who had withdrawn the British military in order to attack and sack Rome between 407 AD and 410 AD.
The usurper Constantine III) had taken the last Roman troops from Britain in 407 and the civilian administration had been expelled by the natives a little later, leaving the inhabitants to fend for themselves during increasingly fraught times. Parts of the plea were recorded:[5]
410 AD:
This plee was made, and refused, in 410 AD, when Roman emperor Honorius decided to release Britain from roman rule, in order to reduce the amount of foreign aid he had to dish out, during the war.
I think modern historians and scholars get mixed up with when the story was written, with when the happenings the story is talking about, actually happened.
Is quite a common error i think.
Though amateurish, all the same.
Defence of Italy#Stilicho_and_the_defense_of_Italy)
The situation in Britain was even more difficult. The British provinces were isolated, lacking support from the Empire, and the soldiers supported the revolts of Marcus) (406–407), Gratian) (407), and Constantine III). Constantine invaded Gaul in 407, occupying Arles, and while Constantine was in Gaul, his son Constans) ruled over Britain.[14]#citenote-Bury,_pg._111-14) By 410, Britain was effectively told to look after its own affairs and expect no aid from Rome.[[15]](
Link for photo#/media/File:JohnWilliam_Waterhouse-The_Favorites_of_the_Emperor_Honorius-_1883.jpg)
Honorius during the famine
Geoffrey claimed:
Now, it simply continues to get "absolutely frightening".
The historians and scholars, based upon their own error, continue to narrate like it is a fact that Geoffrey states that Ambrosius Aurelianus was still in his infancy in the 460's AD.
This error is due to the fact that they have wrong dated the groans of Britain.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
.[16] Geoffrey's narrative has an underage Ambrosius, if not a literal infant, in the 460s. Accounts deriving from Gildas and Nennius place Ambrosius in the prime of his life in the same decade.[16]
Octa of Kent:
Contemporary historians and scholars continue to play on what they bagan with their own amateurish error regards to the groans of britain, and they point out that Geoffrey involves in the story of Ambrosius, a "6th century" British king... lol
Geoffrey of Monmouth
[16] Henginst's supposed son Octa is apparently Octa of Kent, a 6th-century ruler variously connected to Hengist as a son or descendant.
However, there is no lol about it.
It is quite contemporary that Octa was a 5th/6th century king, who is believed to have been quite possible the son of Hengist.
Therefore Hengist could easily have been part of the wars fought against Ambriosus in the 440's or 450's.
Ambrosius, even in Geoffreys accounts, were the Groans of Britain happened between 407 AD and 410 AD, would be well in his prime come the 440's.
And, i also assume if Octa ruled from 512 AD, then he was likely born sometime in the late 400's, (5th Century).
Octa of Kent
Octa (or Octha) (c. 500 – 543) was an Anglo-Saxon King of Kent during the 6th century. Sources disagree on his relationship to the other kings in his line; he may have been the son of Hengist or Oisc, and may have been the father of Oisc or Eormenric. The dates of his reign are unclear, but he may have ruled from 512 to 534
Next, modern day historians continue to attempt to make a mockery of Geoffrey, by naturally assuming that when Geoffrey talks about a character named Cheldric, he is talking about Cerdic of Wessex.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
A minor Saxon character called "Cherdic" is probably Cerdic of Wessex, though elsewhere Geoffrey calls the same king "Cheldric".
Link for photo
Cerdic of Wessex in his purple robe
Cedric of Wessex:
But, even though Cerdic of Wessex would appear to be related to aristocrats with his purple robe, why on earth would scholars think that Geoffrey, who is talking about a period of between 411 AD and 455 AD approximately, would be referring to Cedric of Wessex from 519 AD?
Cerdic of Wessex
Cerdic (/ˈtʃɜːrdɪtʃ/; Latin: Cerdicus) is cited in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as a leader of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, being the founder and first king of Saxon Wessex, reigning from 519 to 534 AD
Childeric I:
Quite simply, it is not a rational conclusion.
A far more likely conclusion, would be a likely ancestor of Cedric's from 437 AD.
Childeric I.
Childeric was the Frankish leader of Roman Gaul.
Childeric I
Childeric I (/ˈkɪldərɪk/; French: Childéric; Latin: Childericus; reconstructed Frankish: \Hildirīk*;[4] c. 437 – 481 AD) was a Frankish leader in the northern part of imperial Roman Gaul
Link for photo
Childeric I
Clovis I:
And Childrec I, is the father of Clovis I, who like his father, ruled over the Frankish kingdom, and also other parts of Roman Gaul.
And Clovis I also was married to a saint and was one of the earliest known Catholics.
Clovis I
Clovis is also significant due to his conversion to Catholicism in 496, largely at the behest of his wife, Clotilde, who would later be venerated as a saint for this act, celebrated today in both the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church. Clovis was baptized on Christmas Day in 508.[5] The adoption by Clovis of Catholicism (as opposed to the Arianism of most other Germanic tribes)
Link for photo.jpg)
Clovis I
Roman Gaul:
And these people were rulers of Roman Gaul, which during the time of Roman occupation, and slightly after it, included Southern Britain.
Link for photo
Roman Gaul
Next, the famous Merlin, that myth debunkers love to use as the classic mythological character.
Yet, reputable historians and scholars, commenting on history "should" know exactly who Merlin is.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
.[16] Vortigern's encounter with Emrys/Merlin takes place in this part of the narrative. Merlin warns Vortigern that Ambrosius and Uther have already sailed for Britain and are soon to arrive, apparently to claim his throne.
And this mythological Merlin, is quite obviously Merovech, grandfather of Clovis I, and the founder of the Merovingian dynasty.
Merovech (French: Mérovée, Merowig; Latin: Meroveus; c. 411 – 458)[1] is the semi-legendary founder of the Merovingian dynasty of the Salian Franks, which later became the dominant Frankish tribe. He is proposed to be one of several barbarian warlords and kings that joined forces with the Roman general Aetius against the Huns under Attila at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains in Gaul in 451. His grand-son Clovis I became the founder of the Frankish kingdom.
Link for photo
Death of Vortigern:
Now the next mythological claim from Geoffrey, is that Constantius/Ambrosius/Art Oenfer VI, defeated Vortigern in battle.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
Ambrosius soon arrives at the head of the army and is crowned king. He besieges Vortigern at the castle of "Genoreu", which is identified with Nennius' Cair Guorthigirn ("Fort Vortigern") and the hillfort at Little Doward. Ambrosius burns the castle down and Vortigern dies with it.[16]
Pope Celestine I:
So is there any proof for those battles?
Well, yes, plenty.
To begin with, those people were in Britain fighting the heresy of Arianism, which was known as Pelagianism during this period, and it had swept the shores of Britain and Ireland after the 410 AD removal of the Roman empire from British shores, and Roman aristocrats were desperately trying to keep a hold of somekind of power in a devolving Britain.
Pope Celestine I
Pope Celestine I (Latin: Caelestinus I) was the bishop of Rome from 10 September 422 to his death on 1 August 432. Celestine's tenure was largely spent combatting various ideologies deemed heretical. He supported the mission of the Gallic bishops that sent Germanus of Auxerre in 429, to Britain to address Pelagianism, and later commissioned Palladius) as bishop to the Scots of Ireland and northern Britain. In 430,
Link for photo
Merovingian symbol
However, these elite Catholic leaders were not in Britain conducting a simple conversion.
They were fighting a brutal war, using military troops and forces, and they were also not just church leaders, but also kings, seeking more kingdoms for both their Churches, and kingships.
Visit to Britain
However, in Constantius' lifetime tribune had acquired a looser definition, and often was used to indicate any military officer, whether part of the Imperial army or part of a town militia.
Germanus led the native Britons to a victory against Pictish and Saxon raiders, at a mountainous site near a river, of which Mold in North Wales is the traditional location.
Link for photo
Germanus of Auxerre
Next, having killed Vortigern, Ambrosius/Constantinius/Art Oenfer turns his attention to the next Saxon leader, and apparently with only 10,000 men, defeats a Saxon army of 200,000.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
Having killed Vortigern, Ambrosius next turns his attention to Hengist. Despite the fact that no earlier military actions of Ambrosius are recorded, the Saxons have already heard of his bravery and battle prowess. They immediately retreat beyond the Humber.[16] Hengist soon amasses a massive army to face Ambrosius. His army counts 200,000 men and Ambrosius' only 10,000 men.
The debate:
So, is there any truth in this?
Well, whilst there are no records of numbers, there was a war fought against saxons that resulted in apparently another victory for the up and coming Merovingians.
Saint Germanus referred to it as "the debate".
Germanus and the cult of Saint Alban
Immediately after the debate with the Pelagians, Germanus gave thanks for his victory at the grave of Saint Alban,
Link for photo.jpg)
Saint Alban
The field of Beli:
Now, Geoffrey, who appears to get his history from not only British accounts, but also foreign accounts, is again being rather unprofessional when he leaves modern day scholars and historians endlessly speculating where the field of Beli in Southern Britain could have been.
Was it Hatfield? Was it Wales? et cetera.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
He marches south and the first battle between the two armies takes place in Maisbeli, where Ambrosius emerges the victor. It is unclear what location Geoffrey had in mind. Maisbeli translates to "the field of Beli"
However if you look at the map below, you can see exactly were Belgae was.
Link for photo
Finally, the Saxons surrender, and they are pardoned by Amriosius/Constantinius/Art Oenfer VI, and they are relocated to the North east.
Modern historians and scholars speculate that this could be Bernicia, because Bernicia was settled by Angles in the 6th Century.
However, we are still only in the 5th Century.
The Catholics defeated the Pelagians, and Geoffrey speaks of Ambrosius assigning Merovech with a task of establishing a permanent memorial for the dead soldiers, and the site is called "the Giants ring".
But silly Geoffrey forgets that by the year 2000 Historians and scholars will not know where the giants ring is, and will declare it pseudo nonsense.
Though, most, will speculate that it is stonehenge.
Even though, right down the road from stonehenge, is the largest stone circle in Europe.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
Following his victories and the end of the wars, Ambrosius organises the burial of killed nobles at Kaercaradduc. Geoffrey identifies this otherwise unknown location with Caer-Caradog (Salisbury). Ambrosius wants a permanent memorial for the slain and assigns the task to Merlin. The result is the so-called Giants' Ring.[16] Its location in the vicinity of Salisbury has led to its identification with Stonehenge, though Geoffrey never uses that term. Stonehenge is closer to Amesbury than Salisbury. The ring formation of the monument could equally apply to Avebury, the largest stone circle in Europe.[16]
Link for photo,Wiltshire,_UK-_Diliff.jpg)
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]

2020.10.09 06:15 LiquidMedicine [Econ] Miserable in Comfort

United Kingdom - 2020

2020 has been, at least, a turbulent year for the United Kingdom. The COVID-19 pandemic has ushered in unprecedented times of paranoia and uncertainty, and no facet of life has gone unaffected. Yet, as the year comes to a close, and with it, the pandemic slows, the UK has the resolve to come out stronger and more powerful. In the final months of 2020, the Tory government announced a series of sweeping infrastructure updates, which have received widespread domestic support.
HS2 Construction - Phase One and Two
Planned to be completed in roughly early to mid 2026, Phase One of construction on the new HS2 railway, which will carry passengers at a routine speed of 225 mph between London and Birmingham. This is an upgrade from previous plans, which were reviewed and subsequently redrafted in 2019, which placed the HS2 line at a routine operating speed of only 205 mph. This increase in commute time could be vital to keeping the connection between two of Britain’s most major cities. Plans for Phase Two have been approved, and the government has taken the first steps to prepare construction to the city of Crewe, and eventually into Manchester by late 2026. Additionally, plans have been drawn up and preparations begun for Phase Two construction in the East Midlands ranging out to 2027.
Crossrail Construction Resumption
Crossrail, an underground rail development in the London area running east-west across the city designed to alleviate overcrowding on the city’s existing transport systems. Originally planned to open in 2018, Crossrail has been over-budget for some time. Additionally, construction was halted for much of 2020, further delaying the line from opening. However, with a budget now reaching nearly 20 billion pounds, with one of the operating companies, Transport for London, ordering an additional four tunnel-boring machines (These things are dope btw) from German company Herrenknecht AG, which has supplied the previous ten machines used in this operation. Additionally, they have sought to acquire powerful Ground-penetrating radars from American company Raytheon Systems. Authorities plan to use ground-penetrative techniques, combined with Inpipe-Penetrating Radar techniques in nearby buildings and sewers to more efficiently excavate tunnels and preserve any potential archaeological artefacts. This will also speed up estimated completion time. The government now expects Crossrail to be completed by December 2021.
Crossrail Preservation Efforts
The Crossrail construction has been a dream opportunity for archaeologists, who have found numerous artefacts in the construction zones of the tunnels beneath London. With improved radar techniques, combined with efforts working alongside international groups of archaeologists and preservationists, to ensure that we can recover our history and learn more of those who came before. However, with the current Tory government encouraging the shift of DCMS-controlled historical and cultural centers to a commercial-based platform, The McDonald Institute of Archaeological Research at Cambridge has invested in a multi-level, permanent exhibit dedicated to the preservation and display of everyday artefacts discovered in the dirt beneath England, free to the public. They have made an effort to acquire as many artefacts from private collectors, as well as the construction companies, as possible, and have an impressive 80-item exhibit.
Heathrow Airport Expansion
London is a crowded city, but at a certain point, it gets a little obnoxious. And with everyone a bit more on-edge regarding proximity and crowds following the COVID-19 pandemic, it is obvious that London needs to expand its transport capacity in multiple sectors. The Heathrow Expansion was a go for 2020, however it was halted in February 2020 over climate concerns. Following a reconsideration of the plans, and subsequent passing by a Tory-led parliament, the runway is to go ahead as planned for construction, despite the possibility of increasing CO2 emissions of the airport by millions of tonnes per year. The new third runway, which would run above the M25 speedway, would only disrupt the two communities of Harmondsworth and Longford. Additionally, a new terminal will be constructed on the southwest side of the airport to better facilitate travel, as the airport currently operates at 98% capacity. Two hotels will also be constructed on-site at Heathrow to improve passenger experience, with contracts being bidded off to British company Travelodge and American company Wyndham Worldwide. Finally, public transport routes will be optimized, and additional stops and services will be provided. Overall, this is estimated to bring in a huge number of temporary jobs during the construction phase, as well as at least 2,000 permanent jobs at the airport alone post-upgrade. This is not to mention the unspeakable economic benefits of increasing the capacity of Britain’s most valuable economic lifeline.
5G Rollout
Perhaps the most controversial of the new rollouts, the UK government has dropped Huawei for 5G negotiations following increased wariness of potential security concerns regarding Chinese-made electronics. The government has since sought to secure a deal with Swedish tech giant Ericsson. Although some networks have launched minor, localized test 5G networks, Ericsson will be tasked with providing the entirety of the United Kingdom with 5G access, using their patented MIMO-based method for transmission. Speedy implementation of 5G is critical to the UK’s post-COVID economic recovery, and Ericsson plans to have a majority of population centers covered by 5G by 2022. They plan to work closely with local government, and existing 5G networks with companies such as Vodafone, to ensure Britain can be as interconnected as possible.
Investing in Information
With the news breaking of underwater data centers being found not only effective, but environmentally sustainable in the long-term, the government leaped into action to ensure this success, which took place off the coast of the Orkney Islands, remained as localized to the UK as possible.
It is true that the waters north of Scotland are the ideal conditions for Microsoft’s underwater data centers. As such, the government seeks to acquire a contract for Microsoft to place up to twelve more data centers of varying sizes, perhaps dedicated to quantum computations or AI research, in key recommended locations off the coast of the UK, primarily off the northern and western coasts of Scotland. With other companies now seeking to get in on the action, the government has also permitted what is considered a lofty, ambitious project.
UK company New Generation Data Europe, who operates Europe’s largest datacenter in Wales, is seeking to create a large datacenter off the northern coast of Wales, the size of which dwarfs any experiments done to date. Though in the early phases of planning, the company expects to use the information learned from this experiment to upgrade its main center, which operates on a massive computer first designed in 1998.
UK economy go brr
submitted by LiquidMedicine to Geosim [link] [comments]

2020.10.06 18:54 illumnious I’m not someone to see in his future romantically or don’t have anything in common to be in a relationship. Just a friend. Or nobody to even talk to.

Sigh, I’ve been having that breakup depression from September 24 and recovering slowly from this shit. I’m aromatic and I wanted to go on a relationship but it always a fail for me. I tried online dating sites like Tinder and OkCupid but I ended up with guys asking me for nudes or just simply playing with my emotions by blocking me. So I quit and jump to subreddits like r4r and ForeverAloneDating searching for the guy was hell cause they asked for my Snapchat or Instagram but no response except for either nudes or dick pics or just simply ghosted the next day. Or two or five the most.
Back in June, I joined a dating server which is full of nice people but some of the guys who joined but got banned, they didn’t even care to look at my DMs to see if I have it on ask but they just text me anyways. I always the one to asked if I can slide in their DMs but the conversation lasted a day the most. Even on speed dating(server event) nobody wants to dm me, I always be the one who DM them and I’m just feel like an idiot doing it. Even writing an introduction, people still didn’t care to see if I’m exist. So I left the server due to depression that I been rejected, guys want to see my naked body and I’m just sad.
The girls in the server supported me so much so I decided to rejoin back because I miss chatting with them. Also I ended redo my intro for both subreddits and ended up texting two people who actually got the requirements. The first one was 23 and the other was 18 going on 19 soon. Both was very nice but the 23 year old was busy with his life but we still friends today, and the 18 year old is another story.
So the dude who’s 18 year old, he live in Wales and he was friendly but he mentioned that he had a mild seasonal depression from the first day, we were friends until he wanted to start a LDR(Long Distance Relationship) which I accept so we start doing date night, he was talking about his favorite bird, history about an Explosion in Germany somewhere in the 80’s I believe and teach me a few words in Welsh. Everything was great for two weeks until week before last Wednesday, he broke up with me cause we didn’t have anything in common so I was like okay that’s fine but later that day I start feeling it more and more until the next day, he decided to end the friendship so I can feel better and get over him. After seeing that text, I start crying more and I’m just depressed. My mother came told me stories saying that I picked the wrong year to think about be in any relationship with but the fact that I more wanted dudes around my age group and at least three years older than me. But she saying that women don’t want men and men don’t want women(she came from a bad relationship with my father so please forgive her). Last Monday he checkup on me seeing what I’m doing and we started to be friends again but he blocked me out of nowhere the next day.
So yeah it’s been two weeks and I’m just a friend for a guy but not a relationship for a guy. Like when it comes to I want to go on a relationship, I always ended up with either a blocked, denied, or the guys who I talked to, ended up with another fucking girl and at times I’m just jealous but ended up crying and I’m just depressed.
That’s my story.
submitted by illumnious to ForeverAlone [link] [comments]

2020.10.05 14:42 Paranoiadestroyer In view of current economic circumstances, here are a few resources for those currently struggling with issues around employment, money/debt, housing and benefits etc.

Citizens Advice
Here you can find out what benefits you may be entitled to and the site has information/resources on a range of areas such as health, immigration, debt, housing etc. You can find your local Citizens Advice here.
The Scottish Citizens Advice Helpline: 0800 028 1456
Citizens Information Phone Service (Ireland): 0761 07 4000 or request a call back here
Adviceline (England): 03444 111 444
Advicelink (Wales): 03444 77 20 20
Textphone: 18001 03444 111 445
Here you can potentially access free legal advice from solicitors for if you've lost your home or are facing eviction. You can acess online advice ranging from reclaiming your deposit to applying as homeless.
If you are in England or Scotland and have nowhere to sleep or might be homeless soon, you have somewhere to sleep but nowhere to call home or you are/could be at risk of harm then you should call this free helpline: 08088004444 (8am - 8pm on weekdays and 9am - 5pm weekends). If you are in Wales call: 08000 495495 (9.30am – 4.00pm, Monday to Friday)
If you are in Ireland and worried about losing your home or needing a place to sleep then find your local FocusIreland office to contact here or select which issue is most relevant to you here
Benefits Guide
Here you can find out where your local food bank is. You can also find out how to deal with being sanctioned, how to make a claim and how to appeal a decision and more.
Here you can find a benefits calculator, search what grants you may be eligible for and find up to date information regarding aspects relating to Coronavirus and benefits.
We can:
We cant:
Phone: 0808 802 2000 (9am - 5.30pm Mondays-Fridays)
Email: [email protected]
StepChange Debt Charity
Here you can find information on a variety of issues including what to do if you need emergency help with money and food, help available if you are pregnant, payment holidays etc.
Phone: 08001381111 (Monday-Friday 8am-8pm, Saturday 8am-4pm) or use our 24/7 debt advice tool
A few more sites to consider trying:
AgeUK - older people and benefits
The Money Advice Service - disability benefits and entitlements for children
CarersUK - information on benefits for carers
Mental Health and Money Advice - mental health and benefits
DWPhelp - the sub for support with all things DWP related
submitted by Paranoiadestroyer to unitedkingdom [link] [comments]

2020.10.05 01:54 Paranoiadestroyer In view of current economic circumstances, here are a few resources for those currently struggling with issues around employment, money/debt, housing and benefits etc.

Citizens Advice
Here you can find out what benefits you may be entitled to and the site has information/resources on a range of areas such as health, immigration, debt, housing etc. You can find your local Citizens Advice here.
The Scottish Citizens Advice Helpline: 0800 028 1456
Citizens Information Phone Service (Ireland): 0761 07 4000 or request a call back here
Adviceline (England): 03444 111 444
Advicelink (Wales): 03444 77 20 20
Textphone: 18001 03444 111 445
Here you can potentially access free legal advice from solicitors for if you've lost your home or are facing eviction. You can acess online advice ranging from reclaiming your deposit to applying as homeless.
If you are in England or Scotland and have nowhere to sleep or might be homeless soon, you have somewhere to sleep but nowhere to call home or you are/could be at risk of harm then you should call this free helpline: 08088004444 (8am - 8pm on weekdays and 9am - 5pm weekends). If you are in Wales call: 08000 495495 (9.30am – 4.00pm, Monday to Friday)
If you are in Ireland and worried about losing your home or needing a place to sleep then find your local FocusIreland office to contact here or select which issue is most relevant to you here
Benefits Guide
Here you can find out where your local food bank is. You can also find out how to deal with being sanctioned, how to make a claim and how to appeal a decision and more.
Here you can find a benefits calculator, search what grants you may be eligible for and find up to date information regarding aspects relating to Coronavirus and benefits.
We can:
We cant:
Phone: 0808 802 2000 (9am - 5.30pm Mondays-Fridays)
Email: [email protected]
StepChange Debt Charity
Here you can find information on a variety of issues including what to do if you need emergency help with money and food, help available if you are pregnant, payment holidays etc.
Phone: 08001381111 (Monday-Friday 8am-8pm, Saturday 8am-4pm) or use our 24/7 debt advice tool
A few more sites to consider trying:
AgeUK - older people and benefits
The Money Advice Service - disability benefits and entitlements for children
CarersUK - information on benefits for carers
Mental Health and Money Advice - mental health and benefits
DWPhelp - the sub for support with all things DWP related
submitted by Paranoiadestroyer to MentalHealthUK [link] [comments]

2020.10.04 20:07 StevenStevens43 Agricola and the Collas

Agricola and the Collas
The three Collas:
I am going to do an article on the three Collas.
The reason for this, is that i already introduced them in a previous article "The first British martyr".
However i feel the three Collas were possibly the most interesting factor in the article and i gave them very little coverage.
I also did not cover the arguments "against" the three Collas, which is frankly "unfair".
Readers should be aware of both sides of the argument and debate, and i should not get a free ride.
So, i will first introduce the three Collas.
I will also leave a link here for the first article i wrote on the subject, as there is information there about the three Collas that i will not be re-covering in this article.
First british martyr <<<<< Link for previous article.
The three Collas
The Three Collas (Modern Irish: Trí Cholla) were, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, the fourth-century sons of Eochaid Doimlén, son of Cairbre Lifechair. Their names were: Cairell Colla Uais; Muiredach Colla Fo Chrí (also spelt Colla Dá Crich, or Fochrich); and Áed Colla Menn. Colla Uais ruled as High King of Ireland for four years.[1]
Link for photo
Old king cole
DNA Analysis:
The first thing i note is that the existence of the three Collas in 4th Century Ireland has apparently been established by DNA testing.
Though the descendency of the three Collas appears to still be in disupte.
The three Collas
[1] Recent DNA analysis confirms the history of the Three Collas in fourth-century Ireland, but questions their descent from Eochaid Doimlén and Cairbre Lifechair.
Now, there is a dispute about the exact period the Collas were in high kingship in Ireland.
I however "always" go for the Chronology of Keating, as i find the chronology of Keating to always be the chronology which matches up with contemporary history.
So if you think that in my previous article i simply made the dates up myself, i did not.
In legend
The chronology of Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates Colla Uais' High Kingship to 306–310. The Annals of the Four Masters dates his High Kingship to 322–326,
Three sons of Niall:
Now the first objection to the three Collas, comes from O'rahilly who has a conspiracy theory that the ancient Irish were involved in a plot to deceive everyone, and thinks that the three Collas are a plagiarisation of the later three sons of Niall Noigiallach.
Historical interpretation
O'Rahilly argues that the breaking of the power of the Ulaid, the destruction of Emain Macha and the establishment of the kingdoms of the Airgialla were actually accomplished by the three sons of Niall Noígiallach, Conall, Endae and Eógan, who established the kingdoms of Tir Eógan and Tir Conaill in north-western Ulster in the mid-5th century. He believes the Three Collas are literary doublets of the three sons of Niall, their story a genealogical fiction intended to give the tributary kingdoms of the Airgialla a noble pedigree.[8]
Bruce brothers:
Now, using this type of analysing, one could then argue that perhaps the Son's of Niall were plagiarised from the later story of the Bruce brothers, and that O'Neill is simply an updated version of Niall.
Perhaps the Sons of Niall are literally doublets of the the three Bruce brothers that were captured, held hostage, and executed by the English?
Triplets even.
Early life
Edward was one of five sons of Robert de Brus and Marjorie, Countess of Carrick, but the order is uncertain. Robert the Bruce was the eldest; in the past there was some dispute over whether Edward was second, or third behind Nigel, but one recent account has him fourth behind Nigel and Alexander.[1] His date of birth is unknown, but it was probably not very long after Robert was born in 1274; he was old enough to be fighting in 1307 and to be given an independent command not long after. The Irish medievalist Seán Duffy suggests that he was probably fostered in Ireland as a child, likely by the O'Neills of Ulster, while Archie Duncan) suggests some period of time spent with the Bissetts) of the Glens of Antrim.[2] This was a common Scottish and Irish cultural practice, and would tie in with, and perhaps explain, parts of his later life.
Edward fought alongside Robert throughout his struggle for the Scottish throne, including his desperate period on the run and as a guerrilla. The three younger Bruce brothers Nigel, Thomas, and Alexander were all captured and executed by the English during this period, b
Link for photo
Edward Bruce grave
Edward Bruce:
And Edward Bruce was of course one of the five Bruce brothers that dedicated themselves to fighting for Scotland and Ireland.
Link for photo
Edward Bruce (Braveheart production)
Figment of their imagination:
However, the argument that it was actually the Sons of Niall that founded the kingdom of Airgialla is actually a figment of their imaginations that they have unwittingly contrived to make up themselves.
Quite simply, the three Collas were out to conquer land for themselves, and they ended up with mid-ulster.
It was "later" historians that argued that this was the kingdom of Airgialla.
Whether it was, or was not, the Kingdom of Airgialla, has no bearing on whether or not the three Collas conquered the area which became known as mid-ulster, or not.
Colla Menn also died in this battle. They burned Emain Macha, the Ulster capital, after which it was abandoned, and seized substantial territories in mid-Ulster, thought to be the origin of the kingdom of Airgíalla.
Link for photo#/media/File:MidUlsterConstituency.svg)
Mid ulster
Quite simply, Airgialla was simply a confederation of nomarchs which paid tax to the high king.
This system was nothing new in Ireland, and was already in practise before the foundation of the Kingdom of Airgialla.
Airgialla was simply the anglicised name during this period, for Ireland.
And the island of Ireland, pre-dated the anglicised name.
The Romans knew this exact same kingdom, as Hibernia.
Airgíalla[1] (Modern Irish: Oirialla, English: Oriel,[2] Latin: Ergallia) was a medieval Irish over-kingdom and the collective name for the confederation of tribes that formed it. The confederation consisted of nine minor kingdoms, all independent of each other but paying nominal suzerainty to an overking, usually from the most powerful dynasty.[3]
Link for photo
Pre Norman Airgialla & the nine hostages
Now whilst etymologists do "unwittingly" prove my point, they do so by accident.
They themselves have not actually realised yet, that the nine hostages were the tribes, and Airgialla was the high kingdom (Ireland), even though they actually do say this.
They simply have not grasped the meaning, and significance, of what they interpret.
Airgíalla may mean "those who give hostages" or "the hostage givers", and refers to both the Irish over-kingdom of Airgíalla, and the confederation of tribes that formed it.[3][5] It is commonly Anglicised as Oriel; however, archaic Angliciations include: Uriel, Orial, Orgialla, Orgiall, Oryallia, and Ergallia.[6]
Link for photo
John Perret, the surrenderer of Airgialla
John Perret:
So who was John Perret? well he was the person that conquered Airgialla, and surrendered it to Queen Elizabeth I of England.
John Perret
Sir John Perrot (7 November 1528[1] – 3 November 1592) served as lord deputy to Queen Elizabeth I of England during the Tudor conquest of Ireland. It was falsely speculated that he was an illegitimate son of Henry VIII. [2]
"Sir John Perrot, was a figure of unusual power and influence in Tudor Britain and Ireland. Born near Haverfordwest in 1528, he inherited wealth and power – the Perrots had been accumulating both in west Wales for centuries – and gained more ingratiating himself with the English court.
His own son described him as a ‘very cholericke’ man, who ‘could not brooke any crosses’. He had already gathered many offices by the time he was sent to Ireland in 1571 as President of Munster to suppress a rebellion. His methods were characteristically violent – he hanged over 800 of the rebels – but he resigned after two years, having failed in his mission.
Back in west Wales he contented himself with self-enrichment and self-glorification, rebuilding in grand style his two main homes, Carew Castle and Laugharne Castle. He returned to Ireland as 1584 as Lord Deputy, with the task of crushing the Irish and colonising their land. Again unsuccessful, he returned, was falsely accused of treason by his many enemies, and died in the Tower of London in 1592, possibly of poisoning."[3]
Link for photo
John Perret coat of Arms
Roman influence:
Now Donald Schlegel points out Roman influence in the names of the Collas.
Historical interpretation
Donald Schlegel claims the brothers' tripartite names to be the only examples in ancient Ireland of brothers using the Roman style naming convention of personal name followed by family name followed by an epithet.
Tuathal Techtmar:
And i hate to keep harping back to Tuathal Techtmar in my articles, but Tuathal Techtmar was an exiled Irish high king, who is quite historically and contemporarly believed to be the exiled Irish prince that was supported by Roman governor of Britain Agricola in reconquering Ireland so that the Romans could have a friendly Irish ally in Ireland.
So whilst Ireland did not ever get conquered by the Romans, there was almost definitely a certain amount of influence.
Archaeologists have also found Roman artifacts at the locations and settlements most consistant with Tuathal Techtmar's reconquest of Ireland.
Romans in Ireland
Taking the native dating as broadly accurate, another theory has emerged. The Roman historian Tacitus mentions that Agricola, while governor of Roman Britain (AD 78–84), entertained an exiled Irish prince, thinking to use him as a pretext for a possible conquest of Ireland.[10] Neither Agricola nor his successors ever conquered Ireland, but in recent years archaeology has challenged the belief that the Romans never set foot on the island. Roman and Romano-British artefacts have been found primarily in Leinster, notably a fortified site on the promontory of Drumanagh, fifteen miles north of Dublin, and burials on the nearby island of Lambay, both close to where Túathal is supposed to have landed, and other sites associated with Túathal such as Tara and Clogher. However, whether this is evidence of trade, diplomacy or military activity is a matter of controversy. It is possible that the Romans may have given support to Túathal, or someone like him, to regain his throne in the interests of having a friendly neighbour who could restrain Irish raiding.[5][11] The 2nd-century Roman poet Juvenal, who may have served in Britain under Agricola, wrote that "arms had been taken beyond the shores of Ireland",[12] and the coincidence of dates is striking.
Link for photo
Now unfortunately Schlegel, after unwittingly and mistakenly, pointed out the huge similarity between the name Agricola, and Colla, may have went and pooped in his own pie, with the claim that Alba was part of the Roman empire.
Historical interpretation
This may reflect their alleged "return" from exile in Alba, which at the traditional time of their story—the 4th-century—was part of the Roman Empire.
Link for photo
Flag of Scotland
Constantine the Great:
After the Constantinius recapture of the Southern portion of Britain after the defeat of the Gallic empire, the Constantines did launch a campaign in to Caledonia.
However, it was unsuccessful.
In the west
Constantius' campaign, like that of Septimius Severus before it, probably advanced far into the north without achieving great success.[73]
Link for photo
Constantine the great
If's buts and maybes:
Schlegel continues to speculate on where the name Colla could come from, without even realising that the name Cola was obviously in existence as early as Agricola.
Historical interpretation
Schlegel also argues that the Three Collas, along with their name "Colla", may have descended from the Trinovantes of Britain. He claims that Trinovantes mistranslated by Ollams into Irish could have produced the name Airgíalla, the name given to the territory the Three Collas conquered in Ulster. In regards to Colla, it may derive from the names Coill or Coel,
No Academic merit:
Historians and scholars have concluded that King Coel having any connection with Colchester, has no academic merit.
The popular association of the name with King Coel has no academic merit.
This is mostly due to the fact that they do not believe the word Colonia is connected to Colchester.
"it has often been held that Colchester contains as first element [Latin] colonia ... this derivation is ruled out of court by the fact that Colne is the name of several old villages situated a good many miles from Colchester and on the Colne. The identification of Colonia with Colchester is doubtful."[11]
Link for photo
Colchester coat of arms
Colonia Victricensis:
This is despite the fact, that when the Romans conquered Camulodunum, they changed the name to Colonia Victricensis.
Roman period
Soon after the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43, a Roman legionary fortress was established,[20] the first in Britain.[9] Later, when the Roman frontier moved outwards and the twentieth legion had moved to the west (c. AD 49), Camulodunum became a colonia) named in a second-century inscription as Colonia Victricensis.
Link for photo
Celtic origins:
That is of course not to say that it is not infact Agricola that has the Gaelic name, as opposed to the Collas having a Latin name.
But it is still very much connected to the word Col, regardless of it's roots.
Other etymologists are confident that the Colne's name is of Celtic (pre-Roman) origin,
Coel Hen:
It is also likely that the Welsh Coel Hen, is of the same family as the Irish Colla Menn.
Coel Hen
Coel (Old Welsh: Coil), also called Coel Hen (Coel the Old), is a figure prominent in Welsh literature and legend since the Middle Ages. Early Welsh tradition knew of a Coel Hen, a c. 4th-century leader in Roman or Sub-Roman Britain and the progenitor of several kingly lines in Yr Hen Ogledd (the Old North), the Brittonic-speaking part of what is now northern England and southern Scotland.
Link for photo_Coel.jpg)
Coel Hen
I will bring this article to a close, by reminding the readers of something i included in my previous article.
In legend
which Asclepiodotus is willing to grant, but his allies the Venedoti attack them and cut off their heads, which are thrown into the river Gallobroc.[5]
The Venedotians were an Irish tribe that colonised Anglesey, in Wales.
Gwynedd in the early ages
Ptolemy marks the Llŷn Peninsula as the "Promontory of the Gangani",[12] which is also a name he recorded in Ireland. In the late and post-Roman eras, Irish from Leinster[6] may have arrived in Anglesey and elsewhere in northwest Wales, with the name Llŷn derived from Laigin, an Old Irish form that means "of Leinster".
The region became known as Venedotia in Latin. The name was initially attributed to a specific Irish colony on Anglesey,
Link for photo
Little Island next to Gwynedd
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]

2020.10.04 00:53 StevenStevens43 The Gens Constantinius theory

The Gens Constantinius theory
In this article, i am going to attempt to show just how almost "everything" contemporary historians and scholars have to say about traditional British history, is "wrong", completely misunderstood, and at times would appear to be completely made up.
I am going to begin with Caracius, who was the British rebel leader that led the revolt against the Roman recapture of Britain.
Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius (died 293) was a military commander of the Roman Empire in the 3rd century. He was a Menapian from Belgic Gaul,[1] who usurped power in 286, during the Carausian Revolt, declaring himself emperor in Britain and northern Gaul (Imperium Britanniarum). He did this only 13 years after the Gallic Empire of the Batavian Postumus was ended in 273. He held power for seven years, fashioning the name "Emperor of the North" for himself, before being assassinated by his finance minister Allectus.
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Carausius coins
Mocking Geoffrey of Mounmouth:
Now i am absolutely dumbstruck by the juvenile attack on Geoffrey of Monmouth, whom is mocked for his teaching that Carausius is a Briton of Humble birth who persuaded the Roman senate to give him a fleet to reconquer Britain with, before using the fleet to conquer Britain for himself.
Mediaeval legend
In Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (1136) Carausius is a Briton of humble birth, who by his courage persuades the Roman Senate to give him command of a fleet to defend Britain from barbarian attack.
Contemporary history:
However, when weighing up Geoffrey's account with known contemporary history, the accounts are almost 100% identical, with the only thing missing, being that he was British.
He was a "Menapian".
Silly Geoffrey?
Carausius was of humble origin, a Menapian who distinguished himself during Maximian's campaign against the Bagaudae rebels in northern Gaul in 286. This success, and his former occupation as a pilot, led to his appointment to command the Classis Britannica, a fleet based in the English Channel, with the responsibility of eliminating Frankish and Saxon pirates who had been raiding the coasts of Armorica and Belgica. He was suspected of allowing pirates to carry out raids and collect loot before attacking them, then keeping captured treasure for himself, and Maximian ordered his execution. In late 286 or early 287 Carausius learned of this sentence and responded by declaring himself Emperor in Britain and northern Gaul.[2]
Only one problem with the criticisms from historians and scholars.
The Menapians were originally a British based Belgae tribe.
.[25] Later that year, while Caesar made his first expedition to Britain, he sent two of his legates and the majority of his army to the territories of the Menapii and Morini to keep them under control.[26] Once again, they retired to the woods, and the Romans burned their crops and settlements.[27]
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Menapian dwelling
The next mocking of Geoffrey, is he supposedly attributes Carausius to raising an army against Caracalla, "a king of Britain".
However i find this mocking unprofessional, as it is unlikely Geoffrey would have been referring to Caracalla.
Mediaeval legend
however, he sails around Britain stirring up unrest and raises an army against Bassianus, the historical Caracalla, here a king of Britain.
Quite simply, Caracalla "was" King of Britain, as Britain in 217 AD was still under Roman occupation, and Caracalla was the Roman emperor.
But not only that, Carausius died in 293 AD, and Caracalla was assassinated in 217 AD, and it is unlikely that Geoffrey of Monmouth would be unaware of this, and therefore it is more likely that the Bassianus referred to by Geoffrey, is not the same Bassianus as Caracalla from 217 AD.
Caracalla (/ˌkærəˈkælə/ KARR-ə-KAL-ə;[2] 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus), was Roman emperor from 198 to 217.
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Roman emperor, Egyptian pharoah & King of Britain, Caracalla
Now it just gets more unbelievable.
Apparently the fanciful Geoffrey has Allectus come along and overthrowing Carausius and setting himself up as king in his place.
Mediaeval legend
Carausius defeats Bassianus by persuading his Pictish allies to desert him in exchange for grants of land in Scotland and sets himself up as king. Hearing of Carausius's treachery, the Romans send Allectus to Britain with three legions. Allectus defeats Carausius, kills him, and sets himself up as king in his place.[35]
Romano-British usurper:
Well, even contemporary history agrees with Geoffrey's version of history.
Allectus (died 296) was a Roman-Britannic usurper-emperor in Britain and northern Gaul from 293 to 296.[1]
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Allectus coins
Duke of Cornwall:
Once more, historians make out Geoffrey's accounts of the Roman siege of Allectus as fanciful, even claiming that Asclepiodotus was involved in this.
Geoffrey of Monmouth included Allectus in his legendary History of the Kings of Britain (ca. 1136). Here, Allectus is an officer sent with three legions by the Romans to depose Carausius, a native British king. He does so, but his rule proves oppressive, and he is in turn deposed by Asclepiodotus, here the Duke of Cornwall. The last of Allectus's troops are besieged in London, and surrender on the condition they are granted safe passage out of Britain. Asclepiodotus agrees, but the surrendering soldiers are massacred, and their heads thrown into the river Galobroc, by his allies the Venedoti.[6]
Liberator Britanno:
Yet, the actual contemporary accounts of Constantiniuses reconquest of Britain, are almost word for word the same as Geoffrey of Monmouth's.
The only thing that is missing, is Asclepiodotus being the Duke of Cornwall.
But Geoffrey probably included this, because that is likely exactly who Asclepiodotus was, amongst other things.
Geoffrey may know additional information that the Romans do not, as Geoffrey will know more about British history than the Romans, who will know more about Italian history.
Constantius launched an invasion to depose him in September 296. His forces sailed in several divisions. Constantius led one division from Bononia, but seems to have been delayed by bad weather. Another division, under the praetorian prefect Asclepiodotus, took advantage of fog to avoid Allectus's ships stationed at the Isle of Wight, and landed near Southampton Water, where they burnt their ships. Allectus's forces were forced to retreat from the coast, but were cut off by another of Constantius's divisions and defeated. Allectus himself was killed in the battle, having removed all insignia in the hope that his body would not be identified. Archaeology suggests that Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester) was the site of his defeat or the area surrounding the town.[3] A group of Roman troops, who had been separated from the main body by the fog during the channel crossing, caught up with the remnants of Allectus's men, mostly Franks, at Londinium (London), and massacred them. Constantius himself, it seems, did not reach Britain until it was all over, and his panegyrist claims he was welcomed by the Britons as a liberator.[4]
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Constantine chlorus
Magnus Maximus:
It just gets worse however.
Apparently Geoffrey and the Welsh traditionists keep getting mixed up with Magnus Maximus.
How silly of them.
Apparently Magnus Maximus is said to have wed Saint Elen and sired a son named Constantine while in Britain.
British legends
Constantius's activities in Britain were remembered in medieval Welsh legend, which frequently confused his family with that of Magnus Maximus, who also was said to have wed a Saint Elen and sired a son named Constantine while in Britain.
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Magnus Maximus
Wrong time period:
Now, how on earth Geoffrey of Monmouth could have gotten mixed up with Magnus Maximus i have no clue, as Magnus Maximus was from a "completely" different time period.
Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus (Latin: [ˈmaŋnus ˈmaksimus]; Welsh: Macsen Wledig [ˈmaksɛn ˈwlɛdɪɡ]; c. 335–28 August 388) was Roman emperor in the western portion of the Empire from 383 to 388. He usurped the throne from emperor Gratian in 383, through negotiation with emperor Theodosius I.
Wife named Elen? Son named Constantine?
And here is were it quite frankly gets "frightening".
Not even contemporary sources attribute Magnus Maximus to having a wife named Elen, nor a son named Constantine.
So how contemporary historians and scholars think he could have got mixed up with Magnus Maximus, i have no idea.
Fate of family
What exactly happened to Maximus's family after his downfall is not recorded. He is known to have had a wife, who is recorded as having sought spiritual counsel from St. Martin of Tours during his time at Trier. Her ultimate fate, and even her name (but see the Welsh tradition below), have not been preserved in definitive historic records. The same is true of Maximus's mother and daughters, other than that they were spared by Theodosius I.
One of Maximus's daughters may have been married to Ennodius,[16] proconsul Africae (395). Ennodius's grandson was Petronius Maximus, another ill-fated emperor, who ruled in Rome for only 77 days before he was stoned to death while fleeing from the Vandals on 24 May 455. Other descendants of Ennodius, and thus possibly of Maximus, included Anicius Olybrius, emperor in 472, but also several consuls and bishops such as St. Magnus Felix Ennodius (Bishop of Pavia c. 514-21). We also encounter an otherwise unrecorded daughter of Magnus Maximus, Sevira, on the Pillar of Eliseg, an early medieval inscribed stone in Wales which claims her marriage to Vortigern, king of the Britons.[17]
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Magnus Maximus painting
Constantine was sent by the Roman senate and Coel submitted to him:
Next, Geoffrey is accused of "repeating" the claim that Constantinus was sent to Britain by the Roman senate, and a British king named Coel surrendered to Constantine.
British legends
[50] and Geoffrey of Monmouth repeated the claim in his 1136 History of the Kings of Britain. Geoffrey related that Constantius was sent to Britain by the Senate after Asclepiodotus (here a British king) was overthrown by Coel of Colchester. Coel submitted to Constantius and agreed to pay tribute to Rome, but died only eight days later.
Father of Saint Helena:
I am actually absolutely flabbergasted by this.
What is so unbelievable about suspecting some British kings may have surrendered to Constantine at some point during the war against the Gallic empire?
Apparently Coel Hen was the father of St Helena.
Is it unbelievable he might also have a daughter?
Coel Hen
Coel (Old Welsh: Coil), also called Coel Hen (Coel the Old), is a figure prominent in Welsh literature and legend since the Middle Ages. Early Welsh tradition knew of a Coel Hen, a c. 4th-century leader in Roman or Sub-Roman Britain and the progenitor of several kingly lines in Yr Hen Ogledd (the Old North), the Brittonic-speaking part of what is now northern England and southern Scotland.
Later medieval legend told of a Coel, apparently derived from Coel Hen. He was said to be the father of Saint Helena) and through her the grandfather of Roman Emperor Constantine the Great.
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Coel Hen
Son named Constantine:
Apparently Geoffrey writes that Constantinius married Coel Hens daughter Saint Helena and had a son named Constantine (whom contemporary historians and scholars appear to believe is actually the son of Magnus Maximus from a completely different time period).
But according to historians and scholars, these claims have "no historical validity" as Constantinius divorced Helena before he went to Britain.
British legends
Constantius married his daughter Helena and became king of Britain. He and Helena had a son, Constantine, who succeeded to the throne of Britain when his father died at York eleven years later.[51] These accounts have no historical validity: Constantius had divorced Helena before he went to Britain.
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Constantine and Saint Helena
Saint Helena:
So let us find out if it is infact true, that Constantine divorded Saint Helena before arriving in Britain.
Constantine divorced Saint Helena in 289 AD.
In 289 political developments forced him to divorce Helena). He married Theodora, Maximian's daughter. They had six children:[13]
To begin with, it is not Geoffrey of Monmouth, nor the Welsh historians that have gotten themselves mixed up.
It is modern day historians and scholars that have gotten confused.
They have mistaken Magnus Maximus, with Maximian, who was the Roman emperor which sent Constantine Chlorus to fight Carausius in 288 AD.
There is however nothing to suggest that Constantine had not visited Britain, even if just as a tourist, before this date.
Maximian Constantine etc
In early 288, Maximian appointed his praetorian prefect Constantius Chlorus, husband of Maximian's daughter Theodora, to lead a campaign against Carausius' Frankish allies.
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Family tree:
But nowhere even in Maximians family tree, does it depict him having a wife named Elen, nor a son named Constantine.
Infact, it even has Constantinius being a cousin of his, and a person named Constantine being the son of a woman named Helena and Constantinius.
Family tree
Family tree
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In fact, Constantinius's obituary speaks of his son "constantine" being elevated to that of Caesar.
Augustus and death
Although prior to 303 there appeared to be tacit agreement among the Tetrarchs that Constantius's son Constantine and Maximian's son Maxentius were to be promoted to the rank of Caesar once Diocletian and Maximian had resigned the purple,[41]
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Constantinius coin
Constantine son of Helena and Constantinius:
And it is actually quite contemporary, that Constantine was indeed the son of Helena and Constantinius.
Constantine the great
Constantine the Great (Latin: Flavius Valerius Constantinus; Ancient Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος, romanized: Kōnstantînos; 27 February c. 272 – 22 May 337), also known as Constantine I, was a Roman emperor from AD 306 to 337. Born in Naissus, Dacia Mediterranea (now Niš, Serbia), he was the son of Flavius Constantius, an Illyrian army officer who became one of the four emperors of the Tetrarchy. His mother, Helena), was Greek and of low birth. Constantine served with distinction under emperors Diocletian and Galerius
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Constantine the Great
Contemporary conspiracy theory:
And the fact that Constantine was born in 272 AD, 17 or so years before the invasion of Colchester, would not really mean much.
It would simply mean that Geoffrey is not talking about that invasion.
He is probably referring to a campaign which constantinius was involved in as a young soldier, conducted by one of his Gothic relatives.
Though contemporary scholars and historians do have a conspiracy theory that the Constantines are lying about being related to a high society figure with the surname Goth, and are in fact from humble Roman origins.
Early history
Constantius was born in Dacia Ripensis,[5] a Roman province on the south bank of the Middle Danube – the empire's frontier – with its capital at Ratiaria (modern Archar&action=edit&redlink=1) [bg]).[6][7] He was the son of Eutropius, whom the Historia Augusta claimed to be a nobleman from northern Dardania), in the province of Moesia Superior, and Claudia, a niece of the emperors Claudius Gothicus and Quintillus.[8] Modern historians suspect this maternal connection to be a genealogical fabrication created by his son Constantine I),[9] and that his family was of humble origins.[10]
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Claudius Gothicas
Military campaigns against the Gallic empire:
Of course, Claudius Gothicas was obviously a loyal mercenary, and campaigned against the Gallic empire which included Britain.
Constantinius would have been in his early 20's during this, and would most definitely have been part of the command, rising up the ranks to emperor.
The campaigns of Claudius
[2] He then turned on the Gallic Empire, ruled by a pretender for the past eight years and encompassing Britain, Gaul, and the Iberian Peninsula. He won several victories and soon regained control of Hispania and the Rhone river valley of Gaul.[22] This set the stage for the ultimate destruction of the Gallic Empire under Aurelian.[2]
Saint Helena:
And Saint Helena "maybe" being born in Greece or Asia minor, is also meaningless.
Saint Helena)
Helena, Helena Augusta, or Saint Helena (/ˈhɛlənə/; Greek: Ἁγία Ἑλένη, Hagía Helénē; Latin: Flavia Iulia Helena Augusta; c. 246/248 AD – c. 330 AD), was an Empress) of the Roman Empire, and mother of Emperor Constantine the Great. Born outside of the noble classes,[1]#cite_note-Valesiani-2) a Greek, possibly in the Greek city of Drepana, Bithynia in Asia Minor, she became the consort of the future Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus and the mother of the future Emperor Constantine the Great.
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Saint Helena
Quite simply, during this period we had Goths and barbarians running riot all over this region.
Aswell as the Heruli.
The Heruli (or Herules) were an early Germanic people. Possibly originating in Scandinavia, the Heruli are first mentioned by Roman authors as one of several "Scythian" groups raiding Roman provinces in the Balkans and Aegean, attacking by land, and notably also by sea. During this time they reportedly lived near the Sea of Azov.
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Heruli homeland
And of course the Scoloti.
, the Scythians called themselves Scoloti and were led by a nomadic warrior aristocracy known as the Royal Scythians.
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Scythian comb
Therefore, being born in Greece or Asia minor during this period, in no way whatsoever means you are definitely not related to Gauls or British kings.
In fact, pre roman Gaul included Asia minor.
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Pre Roman Gaul
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]

2020.09.30 18:51 StevenStevens43 King Art Oenfer and Son

King Art Oenfer and Son
King Arthur:
In this article, i will be attempting to establish a probable root for the King Arthur legends.
I will mostly be looking at it from a historical worldly point of view, as opposed to the otherworldly.
I will also be looking to verify exactly how consistant with contemporary history, the legends are.
So i will begin with introducing King Arthur, who i am sure requires no introduction.
King Arthur
King Arthur (Welsh: Brenin Arthur, Cornish: Arthur Gernow, Breton: Roue Arzhur) was a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances), led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries. The details of Arthur's story are mainly composed of folklore and literary invention, and modern historians generally agree that he is unhistorical.[2][3] The sparse historical background of Arthur is gleaned from various sources, including the Annales Cambriae, the Historia Brittonum, and the writings of Gildas. Arthur's name also occurs in early poetic sources such as Y Gododdin.[4]
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King Arthur
Father and son:
Now the first thing i find of interest, is the claim repeated by Geoffrey of Monmouth that the King Arthur was not one, but infact two.
Father and son.
And this is actually consistant with a couple of Irish high kings.
Art Oenfer:
The father is Art Oenfer.
Art mac Cuinn ("son of Conn"), also known as Art Óenfer (literally "one man", used in the sense of "lone", "solitary", or "only son"),[1] was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. .[9] The chronology of Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 143–173,
Cormac mac Airt:
And the son, Cormac mac Airt, whom is said to be the most famous Irish high king in Irish history, and many legends became attached to this figure.
Cormac mac Airt
Cormac mac Airt (son of Art), also known as Cormac ua Cuinn (grandson of Conn) or Cormac Ulfada (long beard), was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He is probably the most famous of the ancient High Kings, and may have been an authentic historical figure, although many legends have attached themselves to him, Keating dates his reign to 204–244;
Wife rescue:
Now just to confirm that we are almost definitely talking about the same individuals here, i will point to the legend where King Arthur rescues his wife.
Pre gilfridian traditions
Arthur is said to have killed Gildas' brother Hueil and to have rescued his wife Gwenhwyfar from Glastonbury.[56]
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King Arthur and his wife
Art Oenfer also conducts a mission to rescue his wife.
I will also include in the quote the otherworldly myths just to establish that just the same as King Arthur, Art Oenfer also has the otherworldly myths included in his biography.
Bé Chuille places a geis on Art, after he loses at a game of fidchell; under which he must leave Ireland never to return until he can find and rescue the maiden Delbchaem ("Fair Shape"). Art travels to the Land of Wonder, facing untold dangers and is forced to kill Delbchaem's mother a fearsome and supernatural figure, who has been foretold by druids that she would be killed by a suitor of her daughter. When Art and Delbchaem return to Tara, Delbchaem banishes Bé Chuille from the land, returning fertility to the region.[5]
Now when the legends talk about the otherworld, wonderland, or land of wonder, as depicted in quote above, i believe them to be referring to the Lake district.
And the reason for this comes from Art Oenfer's son, who is also said to have to visited the otherworld, in which he was lured with the promise of treasure, specifically a shining branch having nine apples of red gold.
In the tale Echtra Cormaic (Lady Gregory, GAFM IV.11 "His Three Calls to Cormac" ) the Irish King is tempted by the sea-god Manannan mac Lir with treasure, specifically a "shining branch having nine apples of red gold," in exchange for his family. Cormac is led into the Otherworld (Land of Promise) and taught a harsh lesson by Manannán, but in the end his wife and children are restored to him. Also, Manannán rewards him with a wonderful gold cup which breaks if three lies are spoken over it and is made whole again if three truths are spoken.[13]
Now what leads me to suspect this, is Westmorland city councils coat of Arms, which is a golden apple tree with a hook, which tells me the Irish legends are strong in this areas history.
Coat of arms
Westmorland County Council was granted a coat of arms by the College of Arms in 1926. The design of the shield referred to the two components of the county: on two red bars (from the arms of the de Lancaster family, Barons of Kendal) was placed a gold apple tree (from the seal of the borough of Appleby, for the Barony of Westmorland). The crest above the shield was the head of a ram of the local Herdwick) breed. On the ram's forehead was a shearman's hook, a tool used in the handling of wool. The hook was part of the insignia of the borough of Kendal, the administrative centre of the county council.[14]
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Westmorland arms
The growing tree:
I believe that the golden apple tree is based upon the dream that Art Oenfer's wife shared with Art, the night before his death.
Birth and childhood
The story is told that Achtan had a vision as she slept next to Art. She saw herself with her head cut off and a great tree growing out of her neck. Its branches spread all over Ireland,
Now King Arthur is said to have fought a war against Saxons.
Whilst the Irish legends make no mention of Saxons, they do mention a foe of Art Oenfer's running to Britain and coming back with foreigners and murdering Art.
Art mac Cuinn
He made an alliance with Benne Brit, son of the king of Britain, raised an army of foreigners, and returned to Ireland. He defeated and killed Art in the Battle of Maigh Mucruimhe in Connacht.[6]
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Death of Arthur
Oversea's conquests:
Now Cormac mac Airt becomes a legend in Ireland for his endless military victories.
He is also said to have conducted conquests on British mainland, aswell as going missing for periods.
I guess this is where the legends begin.
And this is where contemporary history comes in to play.
Cormac mac Airt
Cormac's reign is recorded in some detail in the Irish annals.[8] He fought many battles, subduing the Ulaid and Connacht and leading a lengthy campaign against Munster. In the fourteenth year of his reign he is said to have sailed to Britain and made conquests there. In the fifteenth, thirty maidens were slaughtered in Tara by Dúnlaing, king of Leinster, for which Cormac had twelve Leinster princes put to death. In other texts he is said to have been temporarily deposed twice by the Ulaid, and to have once gone missing for four months.
Tuathal Techtmar:
Now, i already done an article on Tuathal Techtmar, so i should not need to go in to too much detail.
But even contemporary historiand and scholars believe that just a generation before Art Oenfer's reign, an exiled Irish prince named Tuathal Techtmar was given support and an army to regain the Irish throne, in order for the Romans to have an Irish ally.
Tuathal did take the throne, though his son was removed.
Romans in Ireland
Taking the native dating as broadly accurate, another theory has emerged. The Roman historian Tacitus mentions that Agricola, while governor of Roman Britain (AD 78–84), entertained an exiled Irish prince, thinking to use him as a pretext for a possible conquest of Ireland.[10] Neither Agricola nor his successors ever conquered Ireland, but in recent years archaeology has challenged the belief that the Romans never set foot on the island. Roman and Romano-British artefacts have been found primarily in Leinster, notably a fortified site on the promontory of Drumanagh, fifteen miles north of Dublin, and burials on the nearby island of Lambay, both close to where Túathal is supposed to have landed, and other sites associated with Túathal such as Tara and Clogher. However, whether this is evidence of trade, diplomacy or military activity is a matter of controversy. It is possible that the Romans may have given support to Túathal, or someone like him, to regain his throne in the interests of having a friendly neighbour who could restrain Irish raiding.[5][11]
And the son of the king of Britain that would have been involved in supporting Tuathals descendant to re-regain the throne, would have been Roman emperor Marcus Aureliuses son Commodus who was in Germania at the time getting work experience by going to the headquarters of the Marcomannic wars with his father Marcus Aurelius.
Marcus Aurelius handed his victory title to his son, Commodus.
Therefore if Art Oenfer was killed by Saxons now under the thumb of Marcus Aurelius, then he probably also awarded his young son with this victory also.
Commodus is known to have been at Carnuntum, the headquarters of Marcus Aurelius during the Marcomannic Wars, in 172. It was presumably there that, on 15 October 172, he was given the victory title Germanicus), in the presence of the army. The title suggests that Commodus was present at his father's victory over the Marcomanni. On 20 January 175, Commodus entered the College of Pontiffs, the starting point of a career in public life.
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Commodus as a boy
Arthur conquers Scotland:
So, now on to the "unbelievable" and "fanciful" claims of Geoffrey of Monmouth.
Apparently King Arthur that has already reconquered Ireland, also conquered Scotland, culminating in Bath (England).
Geoffrey of Monmouth
culminating in the Battle of Bath. He then defeats the Picts and Scots before creating an Arthurian empire through his conquests of Ireland,
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Arthurs Crown
Septimus Severus:
Now this would have been during the reign of Septimus Severus (Second name is pretty close to severn, which is pretty near Bath), and during this reign, Septimus Severus almost succeeded in conquering Scotland/Caledonia, however he was made to withdraw to Hadrians wall when the Caledonians took 50,000 Roman lives during this war.
But in actual fact, the Roman occupation was not everything we have been led to believe.
I will explain why, later, but for now, in actual fact, the Caledonians pushed the Romans farther than Hadrians wall, squeezing down the West coast, through Wales, and not far from Bath.
They simply cross over the Mountainous terrain.
From AD 117
The most notable was in 209 when the emperor Septimius Severus, claiming to be provoked by the belligerence of the Maeatae tribe, campaigned against the Caledonian Confederacy, a coalition of Brittonic Pictish[53] tribes of the north of Britain. He used the three legions of the British garrison (augmented by the recently formed 2nd Parthica legion), 9000 imperial guards with cavalry support, and numerous auxiliaries supplied from the sea by the British fleet, the Rhine fleet and two fleets transferred from the Danube for the purpose. According to Dio Cassius, he inflicted genocidal depredations on the natives and incurred the loss of 50,000 of his own men to the attrition of guerrilla tactics before having to withdraw to Hadrian's Wall.
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140 AD onwards
The war ended with Septimius Severus recognising Caledonia as a seperate country, and offering Caledonians a truce, which the Romans never broke, as after 209 AD, they made no more attempts to invade Caledonia.
From AD 117
thoroughness that led most subsequent Roman authors to attribute the construction of the wall to him. It was during the negotiations to purchase the truce necessary to secure the Roman retreat to the wall that the first recorded utterance, attributable with any reasonable degree of confidence, to a native of Scotland was made (as recorded by Dio Cassius).
Also he is supposed to have conquered Iceland aswell.
Well he would not have had much trouble with that, is it was pretty much uninhabited during his reign.
However evidence of inhabitation in Iceland actually does pre-date the first official settlers from Scandinavia, and is thought to have been already inhabited previous to that by Irish and Scottish monks known as the Papar.
Settlements and commonwealth
According to both Landnámabók and Íslendingabók, monks known as the Papar lived in Iceland before Scandinavian settlers arrived, possibly members of a Hiberno-Scottish mission. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed the ruins of a cabin in Hafnir on the Reykjanes peninsula). Carbon dating indicates that it was abandoned sometime between 770 and 880.[25]
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Iceland coat of Arms
And also the Orkneys, apparently.
Well, in actual fact it is not funny.
The Orkney's had in fact been under ownership of the Romans since 43 AD when the king of the Orkneys was one of the eleven kings of Britain to surrender to the Romans at Colchester.
Though there is no actual suggestion of an Irish invasion this early in history, so perhaps he simply obtained the Orkneys as part of the truce.
Iron age
During the Roman invasion of Britain the "King of Orkney" was one of 11 British leaders who is said to have submitted to the Emperor Claudius in AD 43 at Colchester.[40]
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Orkney Isles
He even conquered Scandinavia apparently.
And this is even written in Scandinavian Norse-Gaelic sources that made it's way to Wales. "Y Gododdin".
"God Odin".
Geoffrey of Monmouth
After twelve years of peace, Arthur sets out to expand his empire once more, taking control of Norway, Denmark
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Y Gododdin Arthurian accounts
Ermanaric empire:
And someone must have laid the foundations for the Ermanaric empire, that the Romans loved to hate.
Ermanaric (Gothic: *Aírmanareiks; Latin: Ermanaricus or Hermanaricus; Old English: Eormanrīc [ˈeormɑnriːtʃ]; Old Norse: Jörmunrekr [ˈjɔrmunrekr]; died 376) was a Greuthungian Gothic King who before the Hunnic invasion evidently ruled a sizable portion of Oium, the part of Scythia inhabited by the Goths at the time. He is mentioned in two Roman sources; the contemporary writings of Ammianus Marcellinus and in Getica by the 6th-century historian Jordanes. Modern historians disagree on the size of Ermanaric's realm. Herwig Wolfram postulates that he at one point ruled a realm stretching from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea as far eastwards as the Ural Mountains.[1] Peter Heather is skeptical of the claim that Ermanaric ruled all Goths
Though, i fail to see the quandary Scholars and Historians have got themselves in to over the claim of whether or not Ermanaric truly was king of the Goths or not.
Quite simply, Gothland in Southern Sweden is not called Gothland for no reason.
It is the ancestral home of the Goths.
Gotland (/ˈɡɒtlənd/; Swedish: [ˈɡɔ̌tːland] (📷listen);[4] older spellings include Gottland /ˈɡɒtlənd/ or Gothland /ˈɡɒθlənd/;[5] Gutland in the local dialect)[6]
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Gothland coat of Arms
And also Gaul.
As i have revealed in other articles, Pre-roman Gaul was a large expanse.
Geoffrey of Monmouth
Gaul. Gaul is still held by the Roman Empire when it is conquered, and Arthur's victory leads to a further confrontation with Rome. Arthur and his warriors, including Kaius (Kay), Beduerus (Bedivere) and Gualguanus (Gawain), defeat the Roman emperor Lucius Tiberius in Gaul
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Pre roman Gaul
Non other worldly:
Now, i am going to go back to Art Oenfer and the lead up to his death.
I originally gave you the otherworldly version of his trip to Wonderland, to show you how it matches up with the otherworldly accounts of king Arthur.
But, now i am going to give you the non otherworldly version of Art Oenfer, and show you how it both matches up to King Arthur, and, contemporary history.
Another fairy woman, Bé Chuille, who had been banished to Ireland by the Tuatha Dé Danann, fell in love with Art, but, when she learned his father Conn was still alive and a widower, agreed to marry him instead, on the condition that Art be banished from Tara for a year.
166 AD:
It is quite likely that the campaign of 166 AD, against Marcus Aurelius was considered a huge victory for the Gauls, even invading Italy.
War with Germanic tribes)
Far more dangerous was the invasion of 166, when the Marcomanni of Bohemia, clients of the Roman Empire since 19 AD, crossed the Danube together with the Lombards and other Germanic tribes.[266] Soon thereafter, the Iranian Sarmatian Iazyges attacked between the Danube and the Theiss rivers.[267] The Costoboci, coming from the Carpathian area, invaded Moesia, Macedonia), and Greece. After a long struggle, Marcus managed to push back the invaders. Numerous members of Germanic tribes settled in frontier regions like Dacia, Pannonia, Germany, and Italy itself. This was not a new thing, but this time the numbers of settlers required the creation of two new frontier provinces on the left shore of the Danube, Sarmatia and Marcomannia, including today's Czechia, Slovakia, and Hungary. Some Germanic tribes who settled in Ravenna revolted and managed to seize possession of the city. For this reason, Marcus decided not only against bringing more barbarians into Italy, but even banished those who had previously been brought there.[268]
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Arthur rex
Pax Romana:
This was considered the end of Pax Romana, with Pax Romana being the Roman empires finest years.
Marcus Aurelius)
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (/ɔːˈriːliəs/ ə-REE-lee-əs;[1] 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher. He was the last of the rulers known as the Five Good Emperors (a term coined some 13 centuries later by Niccolò Machiavelli), and the last emperor of the Pax Romana,
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Marcus Aurelius
King Arthur I's death:
Just as king Arthur is about to march upon Rome, he gets news his crown in Ireland has been stolen from him, so he heads home immediately and meets his death.
Do you remember earlier in the article Commodus won a military honour for his non part in defeating the Gauls, likely by having Tuathal Techtmars descendants march on Ireland?
Geoffrey of Monmouth
as he prepares to march on Rome, Arthur hears that his nephew Modredus (Mordred)—whom he had left in charge of Britain—has married his wife Guenhuuara (Guinevere) and seized the throne. Arthur returns to Britain and defeats and kills Modredus on the river Camblam in Cornwall, but he is mortally wounded.
King Arthur II:
During the Parthian war, Roman emperor Caracella was assassinated at the behest of Artabanus V of Parthia.
Parthian war
In 216 Caracalla pursued a series of aggressive campaigns in the east against the Parthians, intended to bring more territory under direct Roman control. He offered the king of Parthia, Artabanus V of Parthia, a marriage proposal between himself and the king's daughter.[6][60] Artabanus refused the offer, realizing that the proposal was merely an attempt to unite the kingdom of Parthia under the control of Rome.[60] In response, Caracalla used the opportunity to start a campaign against the Parthians. That summer Caracalla began to attack the countryside east of the Tigris in the Parthian war of Caracalla.[60] In the following winter, Caracalla retired to Edessa, modern Şanlıurfa in south-east Turkey, and began making preparations to renew the campaign by spring.[60] Death[edit] At the beginning of 217, Caracalla was still based at Edessa prior to renewing hostilities against Parthia.[6] On 8 April 217 Caracalla was travelling to visit a temple near Carrhae, now Harran in southern Turkey, where in 53 BC the Romans had suffered a defeat at the hands of the Parthians.[6] After stopping briefly to urinate, Caracalla was approached by a soldier, Justin Martialis, and stabbed to death.[6]
Link for photo
Carausian revolt:
And do you remember i said the British based Roman empire was not all it was cracked up to be?
Well, between the year 217 AD, the same year Caracalla got assassinated, and 289 BC, there was no Roman emperor of Britain until the Carausian revolt.
Britain was back under a nameless leader.
List of legendary kings of Britain
Lucius (d. AD 156)Pope Eleuterus (174–189)Interregnum; war between Severus and SulgeniusSeptimius Severus (Roman emperor 193–211)GetaPublius Septimius Geta (Roman emperor 209–211)Bassianus (Caracalla)Caracalla (Roman emperor 211–217)CarausiusCarausian Revolt (289–296)
Britain got retaken in stages:
Carausian revolt
The Carausian Revolt (ad 286–296) was an episode in Roman history, during which a Roman naval commander, Carausius, declared himself emperor over Britain and northern Gaul. His Gallic territories were retaken by the western Caesar) Constantius Chlorus in 293, after which Carausius was assassinated by his subordinate Allectus. Britain was regained by Constantius and his subordinate Asclepiodotus in 296.
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Carausian coin
Gallic empire:
And dont be thinking the Carausian revolt done Britain any favours.
Britain at the time had been roped in to joining a de facto roman empire in 260 AD, which was probably their first mistake.
The Carausian revolt gave the actual Roman empire the perfect pretext to come to the rescue and save Britain from this rogue emperor, and the Romans got Southern britain back in 296 AD.
Previously, Britain had been part of the Gallic Empire established by Postumus in 260, which had also included Gaul and Hispania and had only been restored by Aurelian in 274. A milestone from Carlisle with his name on it suggests that the whole of Roman Britain was in Carausius' grasp.[7]
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]

2020.09.30 11:52 thecambridgegeek Audio Drama/Fiction/RPG Debuts - September 2020

I've got what I think is a mostly exhaustive list of the new audio drama series that came out in September, which may be of interest to those looking for new shows. See below. Anyone want to tell me any I've missed, and I'll update it? (Note, "new" here means that the Ep1 of the RSS feed was released, or a previously non-fiction feed started producing fiction.) Listened to any of them that you would recommend?
Previous months are available here:
And the ongoing updates (just in case you don't want to wait for the end of the month) are available here:
And I do a weekly podcast collecting a few trailers here:

9/1: No Place but the Water (Dramatised - Science fiction)
Synopsis: Linda Marshall Griffiths' drama series set in a flooded future world. When there is no place but the water, where do you go?
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9/1: Starlight (RPG - Science fiction)
Synopsis: Join us for this live play DnD space opera as three unlikely heroes traverse the many perils of the known galaxy, and etch their names among the stars. We break the bounds of traditional epic fantasy, and reach for the starlit enterprises of the universe beyond.
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9/2: Deep Folk (Fiction - Anthology)
Synopsis: Studio Tortu Presents: Deep Folk /// Deep Folk is an experimental Artificial Intelligence narrative podcast by Malcolm Sutherland and Simon Cottee /// Tales from the Generator is a first person radio drama written with assistance of the AI Dungeon Dragon Engine /// The Deep Folk Companion is an ongoing discussion of artificial intelligence and its role in the creative process.
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9/2: Eberron Chronicles: Oracle of War (RPG - Fantasy)
Synopsis: A Dungeons & Dragons 5th edition "PodioBook" (podcast/audiobook) playing through a Wizards of the Coasts Adventurers League Campaign. Influence this game and story at:
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9/2: Tales of the Nova Realm (Fiction - Fantasy)
Synopsis: This is a fantasy fiction podcast made by fans of the genre, FOR fans of the genre. The tales that will be told are also of those who inhabit this world. Filled with adventure, mystery and possibly lessons for those who wish to find a deeper meaning. We hope you enjoy what you hear!
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9/2: The Hero of Matysia (Dramatised - Fantasy)
Synopsis: Fatine and Rusen, two knights-in-training in the Matysian Kingdom, meet the legendary hero Balthian, who tells them a variety of tales from his long life of adventures. Join the young trainees as they learn about their hero's life and come to understand the many complexities of heroism, and the impact that being a hero for such a long time can have on a person. Starring Jennifer Hale and Bryan J. Howard, The Hero of Matysia is an original, episodic audio drama created by Will Kaplan & John Kyle Moseley.
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9/4: (exp)lore (Fiction - Anthology)
Synopsis: A fiction anthology podcast to be enjoyed in the community while social distancing. These site-specific stories take an imaginative dive into the past and future of your city. Each episode immerses the audience in a rich audio play while they explore the world through a new lens.
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9/4: Armageddon: Black Dawn (Fiction - Fantasy)
Synopsis: A fantastic tale of dragon riders.

9/4: Deck of Many Queers (RPG - Fantasy)
Synopsis: Welcome to the Table! We're the Deck of Many Queers. Just a group of queerfolk gathered around to play some Dungeons & Dragons!
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9/4: No Sleep Tonight Horror Radio Show (Dramatised - Horror)
Synopsis: A horror radio show featuring fully dramatized radio plays to scare you silly.
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9/4: Station Arcadia (Dramatised - Science fiction)
Synopsis: The Station Arcadia podcast tells stories from a dystopian world where dieselpunk, steampunk, cyberpunk and solarpunk societies all exist side by side. These diverse stories are told through a radio station on a shifting island, and given voice to by the Station's Host - Kass. Woven through each stand-alone story are threads that come together to tell the story of a revolution, and hope in the face of a dying world. Also, it's queer.
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9/4: The Genesys Archives (RPG - Anthology)
Synopsis: Welcome to the Genesys Archives! A place where a bunch of nerds, artists, writers, and musicians collaboratively create stories through a tabletop role playing game called Genesys. This podcast will serve as an archive of these stories as we adventure through fan-favorite settings like Star Wars or Azeroth and unearth the unexplored in original settings like our first project: The Unseen World. Enjoy your stay and feel free to peruse our collection at your leisure!
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9/4: The Heart of Ether (Dramatised - Horror)
Synopsis: Irene Gray moved to the town of Daughtler, Washington to move on from something that has haunted her for four years. There is more to this town than meets the eye, however. Beneath its surface, something lurks.
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9/5: Space Mantis Show Podcast (Dramatised - Science fiction)
Synopsis: A fan hears a knock on her door and realizes she's been given a box of secret DVDs. Why did she get unreleased episodes of a canceled space opera show, and what's going on in space? She'll have to watch the DVDs to find out. The show, Space Mantis, follows a team of intergalactic efficiency experts combing the stars looking to bring order to the chaos of the universe! Though, what's the deal with space, anyway?
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9/6: Muhaymin Luckett Audio Dramas (Dramatised - Slice of life)
Synopsis: Hello, My Name is Muhaymin Luckett. I am an aspiring Actor and Playwright. In this podcast you can expect to hear my works that tell compelling stories. I hope to become known throughout the world for the work I put out. New episode every other Sunday!
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9/6: Mysteries and Madness (RPG - Crime/Mystery)
Synopsis: A 2 Player Role Playing Game creating a Supernatural Detective Drama set in the 1940s. GM’d by Dave Coalmine & Played by Todd Sullivan. These are the Case Files of Jack Shepherd.
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9/7: Audio Ephemera (Dramatised - Anthology)
Synopsis: Audio Ephemera is an audio drama series of unique, inclusive, and engaging one-off stories. Every month, a new story with new characters to love and a new journey to follow will make its way into your ears, head, and heart.
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9/7: Love Don’t Live Here Anymore (Dramatised - Slice of life)
Synopsis: "Love Don't Live Here Anymore," is a fictional, original audio drama podcast series by writers Terrell Jackson and Ember Stone. The lead, Naomi Martin, is a young woman from Kansas City, MO, torn between her dream of becoming a world-renowned vocalist, and the more seemingly realistic goal, set for her by her father, to finish school and have a practical, “safe” existence.
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9/7: Mighty Deeds (RPG - Fantasy)
Synopsis: Mighty Deeds is a podcast of high adventure. If you Like Dungeons and Dragons, Dungeon Crawl Classics, or any other brand of Fantasy Adventure Actual Play podcasts, please give Mighty Deeds a try. We're starting off with a Ravenloft / Curse of Strahd funnel, but where things go from there is anyone's guess. Be on the lookout for more Goodman Games adventures in the party's future.
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9/7: Ravis: The Lost World (RPG - Fantasy)
Synopsis: Welcome to the world of Ravis for our D&D 5e actual play campaign series! Ravis is a world full of monsters and mystery. Follow our adventurers as they uncover the truth behind the Lost World. Using D&D 5e rule set, with a few homebrew / variant rules thrown in! World and story is created and written by our Dungeon Master; Liam Wright. We hope you enjoy!
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9/7: The Golden House (Dramatised - Interactive)
Synopsis: "The one and only podcast for The Golden House Technology and Innovation Centre. Broadcasting from the heart of our state-of-the-art facility on the Isle of Wight". These six episodes were originally broadcast between September 2018 and January 2019. They were pulled from the internet shortly after. Each episode seems to contain a code of some kind... I'm reposting in the hope that someone can shed light on what happened here. I'll repost any clues to my Twitter (@ImogenShelfTest).
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9/7: Waylays and Melees (RPG - Fantasy)
Synopsis: Waylays and Maylays To date: it is the only place that one can get such classics as; grown men cry laughing whilst other adults squeak in high pitched voices trying to intimidate a glowing penguin baby out of it's own birthday cake and into a brand new porn carriage.
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9/8: The Elvet Mysteries (Dramatised - Horror)
Synopsis: The Elvet Mysteries is a horror-mystery miniseries set in a small English university town. After a strange experience, first year student Livvy Jones starts to document the unusual things happening in Durham, and invites the student body to share their stories.

9/9: Around Dis Joint (Dramatised - Anthology)
Synopsis: Around Dis Joint Entertainment is a podcast that produces original creative content from a collaboration of talented Screenwriters, Voice Actors, Songwriters, Music Producers, & Poets. From Romantic Comedies and Dramas, to Horror, Sci-Fi, and Whodunits, our radio theatre style stories will capture your attention and awaken your imagination with new episodes launching each week!
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9/9: Brian Blessed's Bedtime Stories (Fiction - Anthology)
Synopsis: Gordon's Alive! Shy and retiring actor Brian Blessed has got his first ever podcast. Every Wednesday, he'll be soooooothing you to sleep with classic children's stories and fairy tales. Get ready for a 'calming' and completely off-the-rails rendition of some of world's most famous stories.
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9/9: Of Mice and Men and Monsters (RPG - Anthology)
Synopsis: A real play podcast where Dungeons and Dragons collides with the classic stories you either love or completely avoided while in school. Join players Aaron, Adam, Kimmie, and Dungeon Master Katelyn, who is also a high school English teacher by day, as D&D elements are dropped into famous pieces of literature.
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9/9: Season of the Worm (RPG - Urban fantasy)
Synopsis: Season of the Worm is an actual play Monster of the Week podcast set in Eureka Springs, Arkansas and it's dark heart Wormwood Falls. Season of the Worm follows 2 groups of monster hunters as they try to solve mysteries and hunt down monsters in and around Wormwood Falls, Arkansas.
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9/9: The Dr. Epicopolis & 1102 Show of Shows (Dramatised - Comedy)
Synopsis: A meta comedy audio series following supervillain Dr. Epicopolis, the self-proclaimed ‘genius of all evil’ who plots to destroy Earth’s superheroes with his loyal but terribly mistreated slog, 1102. A spin-off from the Parents’ Choice Gold Award-winning scripted podcast series Tara Tremendous.
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9/10: Tall and True Short Reads (Fiction - Anthology)
Synopsis: Tall And True Short Reads is an audio fiction podcast featuring original short stories from Tall And True, an online showcase and forum for writers, readers and publishers, narrated by Robert Fairhead.
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9/10: Welcome to the Quids Inn (Dramatised - Comedy)
Synopsis: Welcome to the Quids Inn' is the story of five young people simultaneously hired by the Edinburgh Newington branch of the Quids Inn, Britain's finest chain of budget hotels. The series explores the group's interactions, stories, misadventures and fun whilst working hard maintaining the reception desk, open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week!
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9/11: The Atlantis Project (Dramatised - Science fiction)
Synopsis: “...This is North Sag – home of the Sagog people. It’s disappearing to the sea. Tomorrow, we have to leave North Sag forever. So tonight, we’ve come together to record our story for you. This is ‘The Atlantis Project’...” This is an audio series in 5 parts for listeners aged 11+. Created as an international collaboration between artists in Wales and Norway, we uncover the effects of climate change on culture through the adventurous and heart-warming story of Evie and Deean - two teenagers who invite us into their world of friendship, crisis and acceptance.

9/11: The Order of Podcasters (RPG - Crime/Mystery)
Synopsis: An actual play tabletop role-playing game using the Esoterrorists rules and featuring podcast hosts as the investigators, including Jennifer Taylor of In Defense of Liberty and Vanished, Rob Kristoffersen of The Coda, Brian Hastie of Double Density and The Coda, and TechnoFunkBoy of Tales from the Rusty Speeder and Dice & Dreary as the game master.
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9/12: Doctor Who: Beginnings of Battle (Dramatised - Fanfiction)
Synopsis: After escaping a battle The Doctor, newly regenerated, finds himself on the frontline of attack from a creature known as a Tiromal, which is roaming the streets of modern day Edinburgh. After bumping into Sophie, a student, he then begins a quest into finding out who is unleashing these creatures in Edinburgh. Starring Harry Aspinwall as The Doctor, Sophie Weller as Sophie, Max Darke as Triper, Abbie Davidson as Daisy, Maisy Crunden as Tilda, Courtney McCrea as The Physora, Briony Martha as Megan, Rachel Johnstone as Debbie, David McKie as The Soldier, Tomos Bohanna as The tech geek and narrated by Lewis C. Baird.Original music by Rebecca Kelly. Featuring music by CO.AG Music, Whitesand and White Bat Audio. Written, Directed & Edited by Lewis C. Baird.
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9/12: In Astra: A Sci-Fi Mystery (Dramatised - Crime/Mystery)
Synopsis: What is happening at Delphic Peak Preparatory School? Joaquin Moreno doesn't want to be here. But as a bizarre and disquieting mystery unfolds, he may be forced to stay and reckon with it—especially since he's the only one who's noticed. Now Joaquin must fight battles both outward and inward. Because truth carries burden. No one can go back in the dark once they find the light... And there's something watching us from the stars. In Astra is a story about mystery, trust, mental health, and identity. And also space and some gay stuff. New episodes every Saturday! Written, Directed, and Produced by Bee Dellepiane.
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9/13: Deconstructive Criticism (Dramatised - Comedy)
Synopsis: This is the podcast where Paul and Allison review all the things they do and don’t need in their lives… But there’s one very important thing they never discuss: Do they need each other?
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9/13: The Paper Dungeon (RPG - Fantasy)
Synopsis: The Paper Dungeon is a Dungeons and Dragons 5e campaign streamed on Twitch. Our group started in Nebraska, but has spread to include people across the United States, and we hope to include people around the world. D&D has held us together for years. Welcome to the podcast of our adventure, Dungeoneers.
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9/13: Where the Tracks End (Dramatised - Crime/Mystery)
Synopsis: From Darker Truths in Strange Fiction Studios comes a tale of 5 people whose lives become intertwined: two boys, two police officers, and a murderestalker. The audio drama will follow the lives of each of these characters separately throughout the course of 9 months.
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9/14: Hank the Cowdog (Dramatised - Children)
Synopsis: Hank the Cowdog, the self-declared “Head of Ranch Security,” finds himself smack dab in the middle of a host of tangled mysteries and capers that span the universe of the Texas Panhandle cattle ranch Hank calls home. Hank is joined on these tail-wagging, tongue-slobbering adventures by a motley assemblage of characters, not least of which is his less-than trusty sidekick, Drover, a small but uncourageous mutt. Listen in as Hank the Cowdog always claims to know the answer, is the last to realize he doesn’t, but is the first to run headlong into tales of courage, loyalty, and friendship. Hank the Cowdog podcast stars and is executive produced by Academy Award® winner Matthew McConaughey. Written, directed and executive produced by Jeff Nichols.
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9/14: The Spooky Sapphic Storyteller (Dramatised - Horror)
Synopsis: A hybrid personal narrative/audio drama podcast exploring LGBTQ experiences and the paranormal.
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9/15: Dice and Desire (RPG - Fantasy)
Synopsis: Six friends go adventuring in this actual play Dungeons and Dragons 5e podcast. Listen to find out how they avoid a TPK this week!
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9/15: Team Asterous (Dramatised - Anthology)
Synopsis: Queer, inclusive, accessible. Subscribe to this feed for self-contained audio drama stories, TTRPG one-shots, previews of our other podcasts as well as special updates from the team. We're a small team of LGBTQIA+ creators making podcasts and videos together in Sydney, Australia.
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9/15: The Cypher and Avaria Beyond (Fiction - Urban fantasy)
Synopsis: Penner had always considered his life ordinary- but when his lover Chess receives a divine revelation that can’t be explained, his finds himself on the run from forces he doesn’t understand, on an adventure bigger than he could ever expect. Upending their idyllic life in a small town, Chess propels them on a journey to find answers to deep questions that plague his thoughts and his sanity. Now, caught up in an adventure that he doesn’t understand Penner must battle not only for his love, but for the sanity and mental fortitude of the man he loves. Partnering with Fred, a boisterous sky pirate with a mysterious past, they head out to find the answers they need on her airship. But the closer they get to their mysterious destination, the more danger they find themselves in. Facing betrayals, battles and a malevolent being that seems to be hunting them- soon they find themselves deep into conspiracies that threaten the very fabric of their reality. With their wits, their ship and a spot of tea- their quest for answers will make them confront the forces that created the universe. With only each other, will their love be enough to save each other?
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9/15: West Coast Option (Dramatised - Sport)
Synopsis: A psychedelic football story presented by Third Eye Sockeye. Week to week we follow the Athens Beach Seafarers as they run their west coast-option offense through the gauntlet of alien abductions, satanic summonings, and crypto cryptids that is community college football.
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9/16: Tales from the Witcher (Fiction - Fanfiction)
Synopsis: Tales from the Witcher showcases serialized, original short stories set in the Witcher universe. Part audiobook and part Actual Play Report, these tales are written and narrated by Jacob Gerstel—and are based on the adventures of his Witcher tabletop roleplaying group. We’ll follow the exploits of a stoic Bear School witcher, an alcoholic elven sorcerer, a resourceful craftsman, a lively bard, and others as they try to stay alive during the Third Northern War. There’s action and adventure, magic and the mundane, scheming and politics, elves and dwarves, war and peace, and—because it’s the Witcher—a touch of philosophy. A new part of the story is uploaded every Wednesday.
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9/16: World of Wyldrvir (RPG - Fantasy)
Synopsis: Welcome to Wyldrvir! A Podcast set in an all new TTRPG system that is fully free to play at home! Made by a team of young adults come watch this world bloom and the adventures begin!
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9/18: Out of the Ashes (Dramatised - Horror)
Synopsis: Out of the Ashes is about a group of people surviving numerous weather anomalies due to a government experiment gone wrong. The sun gets blocked out by ash from volcanic eruptions, global temperatures drop, civilization is now in chaos but while humans can be dangerous in this new world. The things made of nightmares that come from the dark are worse.
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9/18: The Crooked Gavel (Dramatised - Crime/Mystery)
Synopsis: Alice Cinnamon quickly discovers that no lawyer will help her find justice after the influential Judge John Cayenne sexually assaults her during a time when it was barely illegal to do so. Along the way, she meets Margaret Cumin, the peppy and knowledgeable wife of a lawyer. Though not technically a lawyer herself, Margaret is the only one with both the ability and the will to help Alice in her legal battle. Together, they fight to set a precedent of jail time for violent crimes against women, and find something unexpected along the way.
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9/18: White Privilege: Radio Play (Dramatised - Slice of life)
Synopsis: As Black networks pass on hiring light-skinned Black and Jewish reporter, Ashley Allen, ultra-conservative news network, Sly News, can't tell that Ashley's a woman of color. Instead of revealing the truth, Ashley decides to pass as white.
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9/19: Rodriguez and Silversmith (Fiction - Comedy)
Synopsis: Featuring bitter ex husbands, cocaine satanist cults, drag queens, violence, and an Indiana Jones type archeologist/museum expert as the lead.

9/19: TaleTop (RPG - Fantasy)
Synopsis: We are five LGBTQIA+ artists who play TTRPGs once per month! Five intrepid souls battle undead horrors and a mysterious assailant in the shifting Ban-Koreh Desert. Join Caeles, Tuya, Nahoko, Aldwyn, and Ana on their whirlwind adventure: Vultures in Koreh!
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submitted by thecambridgegeek to audiodrama [link] [comments]

2020.09.29 02:29 AsaTJ Crusader Kings 3 Patch 1.1 Notes: What They Actually Mean

Game Balance





Game Content



Link to official notes:
These take a very long time to make. If you got a good laugh and want to support my work, you can buy me a coffee:
submitted by AsaTJ to CrusaderKings [link] [comments]

2020.09.28 04:28 StevenStevens43 The Gaelic uprisings

The Gaelic uprisings
The real Arvirargus revealed:
To find out why "Marius" in the quote below, is almost definitely the same person as Sallustius Lucullus, you will need to first read my previous article to establish why this is.
Reading this article without first establishing the basic foundations, will deem this article useless.
So i will leave a link right here below, for the article you should first read, before coming back and reading this one.
Sallustius Lucullus
Link for article
Now i will introduce Sallustius Lucullus/Marius.
The legendary Marius is the son of the legendary Arvirargus.
Marius was a legendary king of the Britons) during the time of the Roman occupation of Britain, as recounted in Geoffrey of Monmouth's pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae. He was the son of King Arvirargus and ruled following his father's death.
And in turn, the legendary Arvirargus is the son of the legendary Kimbelinus.
According to Geoffrey, Arvirargus is a son of the former king Kimbelinus. Arvirargus
However, it turns out that Kimbelinus is not legendary in the slightest.
Archaelogists have found his coins all over southern britain, marked "rex", which means he was a client king for the Romans.
Also he is written about in Roman records.
Quite simply, he is the same person as Cunobelinus, and Kimbelinus is simply a his name in a different dialect.
Cunobeline (or Cunobelin, from Latin Cunobelinus, derived from Common Brittonic \Cunobelinos* "Strong as a Dog", "Strong Dog") was a king in pre-Roman Britain from about AD 9 until about AD 40.[1] He is mentioned in passing by the classical historians Suetonius and Dio Cassius, and many coins bearing his inscription have been found. He controlled a substantial portion of south-eastern Britain, including the territories of the Catuvellauni and the Trinovantes, and is called "King of the Britons" (Britannorum rex) by Suetonius.[2] He appears to have been recognized by Roman emperor Augustus as a client king, as testified by the use of the Latin title Rex on his coins. Cunobeline appears in British legend as Cynfelyn (Welsh), Kymbelinus (medieval Latin) or Cymbeline, as in the play by William Shakespeare.
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Coins of Cunobelinus
Sallustius Lucullius:
Now not much more is known about Sellustius Lucallius beyond him having likely been a consul, aswell as a client king before being executed in 85 AD when the Roman empire began doing away with their client kings in favour of more direct ownership of British lands.
Also if you find it unbelievable that a Gaelic speaking Celt named Marius might have a Latinised name of "Sallustius Lucullus", then i will leave a photo of the Roman emperor Caligula.
Sallustius Lucullus
Anything more about Lucullus is conjecture or inference: for example, since every other known governor of Roman Britain had been a consul prior to being appointed governor, it is reasonable to assume Lucullus also had been consul; since all of the consuls from the year 85 until past the death of Domitian are known, he must have been consul before the year 85.
Link for photo
Marble bust of Roman emperor Caligula
Now, if you have read my previous article, and you still have doubts about them being the same person, then know, that everything i have said, is pretty much now accepted as a contemporary theory amongst contemporary historians and scholars, as confirmed confirmed below.
But, from now on, i will use the name Marius to remain consistant with popular opinion.
Sallustius Lucullus
A second theory was proposed by Dr. Miles Russell of Bournemouth University. An inscription from Chichester, recorded by Samuel Woodford in his Inscriptionum Romano-Britannicarum Conllectio (1658) but since lost, refers to Sallustius Lucullus, giving his praenomen as Gaius and describing him as a propraetorian legate of the emperor Domitian. Another inscription from Chichester, discovered in 1923, refers to a "Lucullus, son of Amminus". Russell argues that this is the same Lucullus, and that his father was the native British prince Amminus, son of Cunobelinus, who fled to Rome c. 40.
Now Marius would have been at his prime just around the time of the Boudica revolt in 60 AD.
Boudica or Boudicca (UK: /ˈbuːdɪkə, boʊˈdɪkə/, US: /buːˈdɪkə/), also known as Boadicea (/ˌboʊ(ə)dɪˈsiːə/, also US: /ˌboʊæd-/) or Boudicea, and in Welsh as Buddug (IPA: [ˈbɨðɨɡ]),[1][2] was a queen of the British Celtic Iceni tribe who led an uprising against the conquering forces of the Roman Empire in AD 60 or 61. She died shortly after its failure and was said to have poisoned herself. She is considered a British folk hero.[3]
Link for photo_by_John_Opie.jpg)
Boudicea painting
Roman conquest:
Of course, the uprising was caused by the Roman empire trying to take ownership of the kingdoms and lands.
They were previously self governing provences that had good trade relations with Rome.
But when Boudiceas husband died, his will was ignored by the emperor, who done the same to Boudica as he was doing to other client kings and queens, and he took Boudicas kingdom from her.
According to Tacitus, he also turned her in to a slave, and she and her daughters also raped.
Boudica's husband Prasutagus, with whom she had two children whose names are unknown, ruled as a nominally independent ally of Rome, and left his kingdom jointly to his daughters and to the Roman emperor in his will. However, when he died, his will was ignored, and the kingdom was annexed and his property taken. According to Tacitus, Boudica was flogged and her daughters raped.[4] Cassius Dio explains Boudica's response by saying that previous imperial donations to influential Britons were confiscated and the Roman financier and philosopher Seneca called in the loans he had forced on the reluctant Britons.[5]
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Iceni territory
Boudica and her Iceni tribe led an uprising which almost removed the Roman empire from Britain, by destroying Roman Britains most important settlements.
In AD 60 or 61, when the Roman governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus was campaigning on the island of Mona (modern Anglesey) on the northwest coast of Wales, Boudica led the Iceni, the Trinovantes, and others in revolt.[6] They destroyed Camulodunum (modern Colchester), earlier the capital of the Trinovantes but at that time a colonia), a settlement for discharged Roman soldiers and site of a temple to the former Emperor Claudius. Upon hearing of the revolt, Suetonius hurried to Londinium (modern London), the 20-year-old commercial settlement that was the rebels' next target. He lacked sufficient numbers to defend the settlement, and he evacuated and abandoned Londinium. Boudica led a very large army of Iceni, Trinovantes, and others against a detachment of Legio IX Hispana, defeating them, and burning Londinium and Verulamium.
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Boo! And her daughters
The end result was defeat.
She is thought to have died of an illness.
Possibly self enduced poisoning, to avoid enslavement.
The crisis caused Nero to consider withdrawing all Roman forces from Britain, but Suetonius's victory over Boudica confirmed Roman control of the province. Boudica then either killed herself to avoid capture (according to Tacitus),[8]
Now, does it seem a bit unbelievable that one single warrior princess and her Iceni tribe could achieve all this?
Well what you have to remember, is the Gaelic language during this period, was spoken all over Gaul, and before the Roman conquests, Gaul was a very large area, taking in much of europe and beyond, as i revealed in my article "From Gaul to Galilee".
But Boudica was known throughout Gaul, in many different Gaulish/Gaelic dialects, suggesting she was well connected.
The Gaulish version is attested in inscriptions as Boudiga in Bordeaux, Boudica in Lusitania, and Bodicca in Algeria.[13]
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Pre-roman Gaul
Now, Marius, who was likely executed in 85 AD by the Romans, was loyal to the Romans right until the death.
Marius established close ties with Rome and good diplomacy through tribute and respect of the Roman citizens in Britain. He followed the laws of his ancestors and ruled justly. When he died, he was succeeded by his son, Coilus.
And back to this Sallustius Lucullus/Marius for just a second.
Sallustius Lucullus is thought to have been part of Roman attempts of expansion in to Albany/Caledonia/Scotland, and he allied himself with Agricola during Agricolas conquest of Caledonia attempt, just before his execution.
Military activity
Archaeology can tell us something of Roman military activity in the years following Agricola's recall in 84. Sallustius (or his unknown predecessor, if one existed) may have attempted to consolidate Agricola's victories in Scotland by building the Glen Forts which Peter Salway dates to his rule. Forts at Ardoch and Dalswinton in southern Scotland, which Agricola had built, were extensively rebuilt in the late 80s and evidence of improvements of other military installations in the region points to a strong presence in the Scots Lowlands.
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Agricolas northern campaign
De facto king of Albany:
And the client kingdom that Marius ruled, would appear to have been the equivalent of todays Northumbria, and Scotland.
He was likely the de-facto king of Albany, though possibly not recognised by Picts, Scots and Gaels as such.
According to Geoffrey, he ruled wisely in the time when the Picts first arrived in Britain. A fleet of ships under the leadership of Sodric came from Scythia and landed in Albany. Once there, they began to destroy the lands and Marius was forced to react. Following numerous battles, Marius killed Sodric and set up a stone there to remember that triumph. In addition, that land became known as Westmorland after him.
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And as you may have read in the above quote, it is believed by Geoffrey that Marius was attacked by Picts that arrived in Albany from Scythia.
And as has already been established in previous articles, Scythia was an area in Eurasia that was led by the aristocratic Royal Scoloti.
It is also hardly surprising that there are Gaels fleeing to Albany, as Scythia is also coming under Roman attack, during this period.
.[10][13] Based in what is modern-day Ukraine and southern Russia, the Scythians called themselves Scoloti and were led by a nomadic warrior aristocracy known as the Royal Scythians.
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Tuathal Techtmar:
Now, it just so happens, in Irish legends, around this "exact same period", an Irish high king named Tuathal Techtmar was brought up in Albany/Caledonia which was his Mothers original homeland before she moved to Ireland to marry the high king of Ireland, who got overthrown, causing her to return to Albany.
However Tuathal Techtmar ended up returning to Ireland at around the age of 20 years, and fought a war to reclaim the throne of Irish high king.
He would also have been an enemy of Marius one would assume, as Marius appears to be trying to appear as the Roman client king of Albany, and Tuathal Techtmar is also of indigenous Albion kingship.
Later versions of the story suppress the involvement of the provincial nobility in the revolt, making the "subject peoples" the peasants of Ireland. The Lebor Gabála Érenn[6] adds the detail of Túathal's exile. His mother, Eithne Imgel, daughter of the king of Alba (originally meaning Britain, later Scotland), was pregnant when Fíachu was overthrown, and fled to her homeland where she gave birth to Túathal. Twenty years later Túathal and his mother returned to Ireland, joined up with Fiacha Cassán and Findmall, and marched on Tara to take the kingship.
According to Keating, the timing is absolutely perfect.
He was in Albany from 55 AD until 80 AD, and died in 100 AD.
Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Érinn broadly agrees, dating his exile to 55, his return to 80 and his death to 100.
Now the end result of this war with Marius was defeat.
Though Marius was kind enough to allow them to have the area of Caithness, which the Picts refused in favour of going to Ireland.
Though some almost definitely remained.
In respect for the people he defeated, he gave them a small portion of Albany called Caithness to live in. Marius refused, however, to give them women to marry so the Picts fled to Ireland and took wives there.
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Kingdom of Cat:
And the word Caithness, does indeed come from the Picts, that lived in the Kingdom of Cat, after the name of their tribe.
The Caith element of Caithness comes from the name of a Pictish tribe known as the Cat or Catt people, or Catti (see Kingdom of Cat)
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Flag of Caithness
Gaelic dialect:
And whilst all Gaelic languages are connected, there are many variations.
The Gaelic name for Caithness, Gallaibh, means "among the strangers" (the Norse). The Catti are represented in the Gaelic name for eastern Sutherland, Cataibh,[2] and the old Gaelic name for Shetland, Innse Chat.
Pictish language:
And whilst the Pictish language is Gaelic, and connected to the Brythonic language, it is still of different dialect to others.
They could probably still hold somekind of conversation with eachother however.
Early medieval sources report the existence of a distinct Pictish language, which today is believed to have been an Insular Celtic language, closely related to the Brittonic spoken by the Britons) who lived to the south.
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Aberlemno stone
Irish high king:
Now, obviously Tuathal Techtmar did not just walk in to Ireland and get the vote of the people.
He obviously had an army that followed him to Ireland and fought for his return, and he is attributed to have fought very hard for this.
Túathal fought 25 battles against Ulster, 25 against Leinster, 25 against Connacht and 35 against Munster. The whole country subdued, he convened a conference at Tara, where he established laws and annexed territory from each of the four provinces to create the central province of Míde (Meath)) around Tara as the High King's territory. He built four fortresses in Meath: Tlachtga, where the druids sacrificed on the eve of Samhain, on land taken from Munster; Uisneach, where the festival of Beltaine was celebrated, on land from Connacht; Tailtiu, where Lughnasadh was celebrated, on land from Ulster; and Tara, on land from Leinster.
Irish Gaelic:
Now, Ireland was most likely already a Gaelic speaking country.
But legends state that during the invasion of Tuathal Techtmar, the current day Irish gaelic language emerged.
In fact, the legends even express a belief that the invasion of Tuathal Techtmar was a complete foreign invasion from start to finish, by foreigners.
Therefore, i think scholar T.F.O'Rahily is mistaken when he says that Irish legends are rehashing earlier return exile stories.
Whilst there were earlier invasions, i think there is plenty evidence to suggest that the invasion being discussed here, is an entirely different invasion to one that may have happened in the 1st or 2nd century BC.
The invasionbeing spoken about, and the language spoken by the invaders, was probably the form of Gaelic spoken by the Scythian based Gaels which first invaded Albany, before moving on to Ireland..
They perhaps did not even speak the same dialect of Gaelic as other Picts in other regions that have evolved in an ever so slight different direction.
The scholar T. F. O'Rahilly suggested that, as in many such "returned exile" stories, Túathal represented an entirely foreign invasion which established a dynasty in Ireland, whose dynastic propagandists fabricated an Irish origin for him to give him some spurious legitimacy. In fact, he proposed that Túathal's story, pushed back to the 1st or 2nd century BC, represented the invasion of the Goidels, who established themselves over the earlier populations and introduced the Q-Celtic language that would become Irish,
There is however a quite contemporary theory that Tuathal may have actually been a Roman puppet.
Romans in Ireland
Taking the native dating as broadly accurate, another theory has emerged. The Roman historian Tacitus mentions that Agricola, while governor of Roman Britain (AD 78–84), entertained an exiled Irish prince, thinking to use him as a pretext for a possible conquest of Ireland.[10]
Evidence of Roman occupation:
Archaeologists have in fact found evidence of Roman settlement in the areas most consistant with Tuathals war campaigns in Ireland.
Romans in Ireland
.[10] Neither Agricola nor his successors ever conquered Ireland, but in recent years archaeology has challenged the belief that the Romans never set foot on the island. Roman and Romano-British artefacts have been found primarily in Leinster, notably a fortified site on the promontory of Drumanagh, fifteen miles north of Dublin, and burials on the nearby island of Lambay, both close to where Túathal is supposed to have landed, and other sites associated with Túathal such as Tara and Clogher.
Military support:
Contemporary historians and scholars tend to actually believe that Tuathals campaign was supported by the Romans to have a friendly king that will put a stop to the Irish raids happening on mainland Britain, as well as of course for other future possibilities and obvious reasons.
Romans in Ireland
It is possible that the Romans may have given support to Túathal, or someone like him, to regain his throne in the interests of having a friendly neighbour who could restrain Irish raiding.[5][11] The 2nd-century Roman poet Juvenal, who may have served in Britain under Agricola, wrote that "arms had been taken beyond the shores of Ireland",[12] and the coincidence of dates is striking.
And it is quite contemporary that Agricola did indeed give support and refuge to an exiled Irish king, in the hope he would be useful for a future conquest of Ireland.
[9] Agricola fortified the coast facing Ireland, and Tacitus recalls that his father-in-law often claimed the island could be conquered with a single legion and auxiliaries). He had given refuge to an exiled Irish king whom he hoped he might use as the excuse for conquest.
Link for photo
It sounds like the uprising was a lot bigger and more co-ordinated than simply one she-wolf.
It probably included Irish raiders, and even Picts from afar afield as Scythia.
It would all have been part of the war against the Roman empire.
As for the case with the Picts.
It sounds like Agricola gave them refuge from Marius most likely.
May have even used the inhumane way that Marius was treating them as justification for executing him, thus removing yet another client king, at the same time as gaining an allied army to invade and conquer Ireland.
Though, if this was the reason, then it was all fruitless, as no conquest of Ireland would ever be followed through by the Romans.
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]

2020.09.28 01:51 tcmalloc Scotland - Current advice as of 2020-09-28

Scotland is currently on phase 3 of the route map for coming out of lockdown. Rules in England, Ireland and Wales differ.
Generally, You should:

What is open?

All retail and hospitality business are allowed to open, but pubs, bars and restaurants must close at 10pm.
Sports and leisure facilities are now allowed to open. Professional sports can take place behind closed doors. Live drive-in events can take place, and certain outdoor live events with correct measures. Other leisure facilities such as bingo, casinos and bowling alleys can re-open.
Theatres and Live music venues cannot currently open.
Primary, Secondary, Special schools, Nurseries are all now open. Universities and colleges are being advised to take a hybrid approach to teaching, but accomodation is open in most cases.
All environments must have rules for social distancing, etc.

Who can you meet with?

Up to six people from 2 different households outside or in a restaurant/pub.
Alternatively, Six 12-17 year olds can meet without a household limit, but must physically distance.
You can't meet people inside their house. If you meet them in their garden, only go in to use the bathroom.
Also see 'extended households' below.

What else?

You must wear a face mask in retail and hospitality environments, unless you are exempt. This includes when not sitting at your table in a restaurant, etc.
You should not car share with people outside your own household/extended household. If unavoidable, follow this advice
Those who were previously shielding can follow the same advice as everyone else.
You can travel anywhere in Scotland to visit friends and family, as long as you meet them outside/in a restaurant.
Some care homes and hospitals are starting to accept visitors, check with them.
An extended household is defined as 2 households joined together to form a single household. They can consist of
This is a briefer interpretation of guidance from the site and is up to date as of the time of posting. If you're a business owner or travelling from another country please consult the guidance directly.
submitted by tcmalloc to CurrentCoronaAdvice [link] [comments]

2020.09.21 22:23 tom275bo Found on a "Celebrities" instagram

So, my family have decided I need a girlfriend for my own sanity and here’s my criteria 😅
Ok - Let’s start this off like I’m normal:
Strong nice loving personality ✅
Now to more important things:
You must like older men but only me...You have to be a worldie and above 30 (Ok 28 29 could work) but not my age as that would just look weird 🤷‍♂️ you must like to travel and to fly business class and stay in incredible hotels. Be prepared to give up your career or job or at least be able to work from a laptop on a tropical beach somewhere. You will need to spend the summer in ibiza and the winter in Dubai with 2 weeks in Uk for Christmas and new year with the families and holidays to the Maldives...No baggage as mine are all grown up. A dog is acceptable but will need a passport. You must be able to cook as I love cooking, especially Waitrose ready made meals. You also don’t need to be verified I can sort that for you.. house music and R&B lovers only. No heavy rock or pop music. You must like Netflix especially money heist and also real crime. No chick flicks watch them with your mates. You need to be confident enough to be able to go to the front of the queue in nightclubs and accept a table and free drinks from the owners. You will need a driving license to share a Bentley and a Lamborghini Jeep (pending) must never have shared a teeth whitening post!! I’m not on any dating sites you shouldn’t be too. I’m Not on only fans so you shouldn’t be too . You must love the gym, health food and have body definition as I will have soon. Accept and love my children and grandchildren and realise no more kids for me.. (never say never though) you must be able to let my PA book all yours and our flights and purchase items online for you. You just need to send a link to him ..You must be able to accept my friends, accept I have to reply to girls DMs not just guys... One last thing. Your geography needs to be on point as girls that think Lincoln is in Wales is not good. Be intelligent but not boring. Outgoing suits 😂🙈🧡#wifeywhereyouat #justbanter
submitted by tom275bo to copypasta [link] [comments]

2020.09.16 19:51 StevenStevens43 From the temple of Apollo to The "green isle of Islay".

From the temple of Apollo to The
In this article, i am going to attempt to correct, what i think is a scholarly error.
It begins with the son of Belinas, who was the focus of attention in my last article, "Brennos & Sack of Rome".
Gurguit Barbtruc:
Garguit Barbtruc is the legendary son of Belinas.
Garguit Barbtruc
Gurguit Barbtruc (Welsh: Gwrgant Farfdrwch) was a legendary king of the Britons) as accounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. He was the son of Belinus and was said to have found a home for the Irish people.
His father sadly passed away whilst fighting in Greece.
He committed suicide after receiving horrific injuries.
He might actually have been thrown off a tower in flames.
Later years
When Belinus finally died, he was cremated and placed on top of a great tower he had created. He was succeeded by his son Gurguit Barbtruc.
Link for photo#/media/File:Naxos_Sphinx_with_humans_for_size.jpg)
Temple of Apollo
Many poems attribute the enchanting music made by priests at the temple of Apollo.
Apparently the festivities would whip up a frantic delirium with loud screams and cries and the priests would turn the cries in to music.
Sounds like the temple of Apollo was used for capital punishment.
I wonder if this is how Belinas suffered his horrific injuries?
Temple of Apollo)
The Temple of Apollo, god of music, harmony and light, occupied the most important and prominent position in the Delphic Panhellenic Sanctuary. The edifice with the partially restored colonnade visible today dates to the 4th century BCE; it is the third temple built at the same place. The famous oracle, the Pythia, operated inside the temple, the location chosen, according to tradition, due to a sacred chasm beneath the site emitting vapors, which were inhaled by the Pythias, who then entered a state of delirium and uttering inarticulate cries, which were then turned into equivocal oracles by the priests.[1]#cite_note-:0-1)
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Bladud jumping from Temple of Apollo
It is likely that King Bladud of Loegria was the first ever person to receive this honour.
Divination, wing and death
The tale claims that he also encouraged the practice of necromancy, or divination through the spirits of the dead. Through this practice, he is said to have constructed wings for himself and to have tried to fly to (or from) the temple of Apollo in Trinovantum (London)
Link for photo
Isle of Ireland:
Now, enough of Garguit Barbtruc's fathers possible death.
An absolutely sensational claim is made, regards to Garguit Barbtruc.
According to translations of Irish legends, Garguit Barbtruc gave the Basclenses, under the leadership of Partholoim, the Isle of Ireland.
Gaurguit Barbtruc
On the return voyage, Gurguit came across a fleet of thirty ships of men and women, called Basclenses, under the leadership of Partholoim. They had been exiled from Spain and sought a new land to live in. Gurguit did not allow them to settle in Britain but he gave them the isle of Ireland to settle,
357-345 BC Further conflict in region:

Now, i will begin by stating, that it is not in the slightest bit unbelievable that Garguit Barbtruc, on his way back from Denmark, may have encountered a fleet of Gauls fleeing Iberia during this period.

Between 357 and 345 BC there was a huge war going on in those regions, and after initial success in sacking Rome, the Romans were beginning to win again, in this region, and the Gauls were being pushed out.
By 347 BC, they had been pushed out.
357-345 BC
There was single combat between a Gaul and a Roman, which the latter won. That was followed by a battle, which the Romans won. The Gauls scattered among the Volsci, and some of them went to Etruria and others to Apulia. The consuls then joined the other legions to deal with the Greek fleet. There was no battle, and the Greeks were kept offshore. Eventually, the Greeks ran out of the water and left.[51]
In 348 and 347, there was peace.
Celtiberian wars:
The depopulation of Celtiberians from the Iberian peninsula went on right through from the first Greco invasion in 600 BC, until the Celtiberian wars.
Early history of Iberian peninsula
The Greeks are responsible for the name Iberia, apparently after the river Iber (Ebro). In the 6th century BC, the Carthaginians arrived in Iberia, struggling first with the Greeks, and shortly after, with the newly arriving Romans for control of the Western Mediterranean. Their most important colony was Carthago Nova (Latin name of modern-day Cartagena).[7]
The peoples whom the Romans met at the time of their invasion in what is now known as Spain were the Iberians, inhabiting an area stretching from the northeast part of the Iberian Peninsula through the southeast. The Celts mostly inhabited the inner and north-west part of the peninsula. In the inner part of the peninsula, where both groups were in contact, a mixed culture arose, the Celtiberians. The Celtiberian Wars
Link for photo
Celtiberian suicide
Isle of Islay:
Now, it is unlikely that legends are referring to Ireland.
More likely the Isle of Isley, which is an Island on the North Irish coast, which evolved in to a gaelic speaking Irish Dal Riata stronghold
Islay (/ˈaɪlə/ (📷listen) EYE-lə; Scottish Gaelic: Ìle) is the southernmost island of the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. Known as "The Queen of the Hebrides",[7] it lies in Argyll just south west of Jura and around 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of the Northern Irish coast. The island's capital is Bowmore where the distinctive round Kilarrow Parish Church and a distillery are located.[8] Port Ellen is the main port.[9]
Islay is the fifth-largest Scottish island and the eighth-largest island of the British Isles, with a total area of almost 620 square kilometres (240 sq mi).[Note 1] There is ample evidence of the prehistoric settlement of Islay and the first written reference may have come in the 1st century AD. The island had become part of the Gaelic Kingdom of Dál Riata during the Early Middle Ages
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Isle of Islay
And Portnahaven,
on Isle of Islay, likely derives it's name, from where the legendary Partholoim landed.
On the return voyage, Gurguit came across a fleet of thirty ships of men and women, called Basclenses, under the leadership of Partholoim
Link for photo
Now, when Garguit Barbtruc died, he was succeeded to the Albion throne by Guithelin.
Gurguit Barbtruc
Gurguit died peacefully and was buried in the Caerleon, a city he built up from the time his father founded it. Guithelin succeeded him to the kingship.
Port Ellen:
Port Ellen is the main port for Isle of Islay, a word almost definitely derived from Elin.
Port Ellen is the main port.[9]
Now, what about the claim that Garguit was buried in Caerleon?
What proof is there that Belinas left Garguit the Fortress of Caerleon? After-all, Caerloeon is in Wales/Cambria! Not Albany.
Caerleon (/kərˈliːən/; Welsh: Caerllion) is a suburban town and community) on the River Usk[4][5] in the northern outskirts of the city of Newport, Wales. Caerleon is of archaeological importance, being the site of a notable Roman legionary fortress, Isca Augusta, and an Iron Age hillfort.
Link for photo
Well, you see, when Cornwall conquered Loegria (England),, Albany (Scotland) allied themselves with Cambria/Wales, and also this new kingdom (Northumberland), whilst fighting this invasion.
But Dyfnwal killed both the king of Cambria and Albany.
It would appear, after the deaths of the two kings, Staterius of Albany's son, Belinus, inherited both the Cambrain kingdom, and kingdom of Albany.
Also the kingdom of Northerberland would be dissolved with the death of Brunnias, and would fall back in to the hands of Albany.
Dyfnwal was the King of Cornwall during the war created in the power vacuum left by Porrex I. He was braver and more courageous than all the other kings in the war. He defeated Pinner, the king of Loegria. In response, Rudaucus, king of Cambria, and Staterius, king of Albany, allied together and destroyed much of Dyfnwal's land. The two sides met in battle and were stalemated. Dyfnwal then took 600 of his men and himself and dressed themselves in the armour of the dead enemies. They led a charge deep into enemy lines where they killed the two kings.
Now, it appears that no King was put on the empty Loegria throne.
Instead it appears, that instead of a King, government was placed in the City of trinovantium (London).
Likely with the kings of Cornwall and Albany acting as house of Lords.
Guithelin was a legendary king of the Britons) as accounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. He became king after the death of Gurguit Barbtruc.
He ruled liberally and temperately for his life. His Queen consort was an artisan and noblewoman named Marcia. When he died, his wife took over the government as regent for their son, Sisillius II.
Link for photo
The Green Isle of Isley:
and Eilean uaine Ìle – the "green isle of Islay"[18]
I have made a few minor edits to this article, to include some additional information i found with farther research, and also to make a few minor corrections.
I have not been able to provide a source for every little change i made, but i will however be covering all this in the next article.

submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]

2020.09.16 19:25 DynastyMK2 Wayne Lineker's girlfriend criteria

This post is purely tongue in cheek banter..🧡
So, my family have decided I need a girlfriend for my own sanity and here’s my criteria 😅
Ok - Let’s start this off like I’m normal:
Strong nice loving personality ✅
Now to more important things:
You must like older men but only me...You have to be a worldie and above 30 (Ok 28 29 could work) but not my age as that would just look weird 🤷‍♂️ you must like to travel and to fly business class and stay in incredible hotels. Be prepared to give up your career or job or at least be able to work from a laptop on a tropical beach somewhere. You will need to spend the summer in ibiza and the winter in Dubai with 2 weeks in Uk for Christmas and new year with the families and holidays to the Maldives...No baggage as mine are all grown up. A dog is acceptable but will need a passport. You must be able to cook as I love cooking, especially Waitrose ready made meals. You also don’t need to be verified I can sort that for you.. house music and R&B lovers only. No heavy rock or pop music. You must like Netflix especially money heist and also real crime. No chick flicks watch them with your mates. You need to be confident enough to be able to go to the front of the queue in nightclubs and accept a table and free drinks from the owners. You will need a driving license to share a Bentley and a Lamborghini Jeep (pending) must never have shared a teeth whitening post!! I’m not on any dating sites you shouldn’t be too. I’m Not on only fans so you shouldn’t be too . You must love the gym, health food and have body definition as I will have soon. Accept and love my children and grandchildren and realise no more kids for me.. (never say never though) you must be able to let my PA @davehodges10 book all yours and our flights and purchase items online for you. You just need to send a link to him ..You must be able to accept my friends even @tonytrumanibiza as I will accept yours ... accept I have to reply to girls DMs not just guys... One last thing. Your geography needs to be on point as girls that think Lincoln is in Wales is not good. Be intelligent but not boring. Outgoing suits 😂🙈🧡#wifeywhereyouat #justbanter
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